Table 2

Variables identified in the univariate and multivariate analyses for clinical and non-clinical factors as predictors of HbA1c goal as targeted by the treating physician at 6 months

EffectUnivariate analysis*Multivariate analysis*
OR95% CIP valuesOR95% CIP values
Clinical variables
AgeAge1.0121.003 to 1.0220.00501.0241.012 to 1.0360.0001
EthnicityNon-Caucasian versus Caucasian0.6280.513 to 0.768<0.00010.5280.412 to 0.677<0.0001
Diabetes duration in class (years)>10 versus ≤10.4400.304 to 0.639<0.00010.3200.197 to 0.519<0.0001
5–10 versus ≤10.4820.329 to 0.7050.3610.223 to 0.586<0.0001
1–5 versus ≤10.6500.439 to 0.9620.5740.355 to 0.9300.0240
Diabetes affecting two or three generationsYes versus no1.4441.137 to 1.8340.00231.5561.173 to 2.0650.0022
Unknown versus no1.0240.758 to 1.3831.1340.787 to 1.6340.4991
Any diabetes-related complicationsYes versus no0.9260.751 to 1.1410.01180.8720.676 to 1.1230.2887
Unknown versus no1.8351.153 to 2.9222.0461.137 to 3.6810.0169
HbA1c at baseline (five classes)≥8.5% versus <7%0.1670.093 to 0.299<0.00010.1730.091 to 0.326<0.0001
8–8.5% versus <7%0.2540.135 to 0.4770.2700.135 to 0.5390.0002
7.5–8% versus <7%0.4870.256 to 0.9230.5110.254 to 1.0290.0602
7–7.5% versus <7%0.6120.298 to 1.2560.7990.362 to 1.7640.5791
Antidiabetics taken at the end of inclusion
 Route of treatmentsOral+injectable versus injectable0.7170.545 to 0.9440.0288
 Analog insulinYes versus no0.4810.243 to 0.9510.03140.3510.142 to 0.8700.0238
 Number of OADs taken>2 versus none0.3900.246 to 0.6200.07050.5310.311 to 0.9050.0200
2 versus none0.8220.611 to 1.1060.9820.683 to 1.4120.9235
1 versus none0.7130.528 to 0.9640.7810.540 to 1.1310.1913
Reasons to add insulin therapy to OADs
 HbA1c target not achievedYes versus no0.6690.504 to 0.8880.0053
 FPG target not achievedYes versus no0.7770.622 to 0.9710.0260
Non-clinical variables
Receiving diabetes educationYes versus no0.7920.644 to 0.9740.0269
Frequency of tests during past year in class≥3 versus 01.1210.299 to 4.2020.0037
2 versus 00.7170.191 to 2.688
1 versus 00.7050.188 to 2.637
Medical health coverageYes versus no1.2771.043 to 1.5620.0175
  • * All variables were significant in univariate statistical test at 0.20 level. ORs were estimated with two-sided 95% Cls with univariate logistic regressions. Stepwise selection; decision criteria to enter in the multivariate analysis: χ2 with significant level at 0.20, to stay: Wald χ2 with significant level at 0.05.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycemic hemoglobin A1c; OAD, oral antidiabetic.