Table 3

Baseline characteristics of the study population according to the glycemic goal as targeted by the treating physician

Study populationsHbA1c level targeted by the physician
<6.5% (N=117)6.5–7% (N=698)7–7.5% (N=1852)>7.5% (N=421)Unknown (N=3)
Age (years) mean (SD)52.1 (9.3)51.6 (10.3)54.8 (10.5)57.2 (10.9)54.3 (12.2)
Gender, male (%)56.454.451.953.7100
Health coverage (%)45.346.752.353.466.7
Duration of diabetes (years) mean (SD)7.3 (6.3)8.5 (6.6)10.4 (6.7)11.5 (7.3)5.7 (5.7)
BMI kg/m2 mean (SD)27.5 (5.2)28.4 (5.2)28.9 (5.6)28.7 (5.2)26.3 (2.2)
BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (%)29.835.037.037.40.0
BMI 25–30 kg/m2 (%)36.038.13839.350
Any diabetes complications (%)33.352.956.457.233.3
Microvascular complications (%)87.290.087.088.4100
Macrovascular complications (%)28.234.130.637.3100
HBP (%)49.652.962.566.966.7
Dyslipidemia (%)49.657.057.064.066.7
10 year CHD mean (SD)/median (%)13.6 (10.9)16.6 (14.0)18.3 (14.2)24.0 (16.1)18.0 (21.9)
Diabetes education, (%)47.059.763.965.566.7
Structured courses of diabetes education, yes (%)5.52.21.21.10.0
Glucometer, yes (%)42.751.561.968.2100
SMBG use (%)94.088.092.789.9100
Routinely SMBG use (every day) (%)61.727.434.435.30.0
Cost of strips is a limiting factor for SMBG use (yes/no)32.046.645.437.566.7
Last HbA1c measurement (%) mean (SD)8.6 (1.5)9.3 (1.7)9.7 (1.8)10.7 (1.7)7.6 (2.1)
HbA1c<7% (%)16.53.61.40.233.3
Number of people with severe hypoglycemia within last 3 months n (%)0.011 (21.2)31 (16.7)5 (10.2)
Number of emergency room visits mean (SD)/median0.1 (0.3) / 0.00.1 (0.4) / 0.00.1 (0.6) / 0.00.1 (0.4) / 0.0
  • BMI, body mass index; CHD, coronary heart disease; HbA1c, glycemic hemoglobin A1c; HBP, high blood pressure; SMBG, self-monitoring blood glucose.