Table 1

Baseline characteristics by quartiles of pedometer steps

CharacteristicQuarter 1 (N=2326)Quarter 2 (N=2327)Quarter 3 (N=2327)Quarter 4 (N=2326)P values
Average daily pedometer steps at month 0.5, median (25th, 75th)2006 (859, 2859)4659 (4085, 5216)7093 (6382, 7754)10 5699 (9447, 12299)<0.0001
Age at screening, median (25th, 75th), years*,†65 (59, 71)64 (59, 69)63 (58, 68)62 (57, 66)<0.0001
Female, no. (%)*,†1259 (54.1)1224 (52.6)1197 (51.4)1031 (44.3)<0.0001
Pooled race group: original, no. (%)*,†<0.0001
 White1996 (85.8)1985 (85.3)1943 (83.5)1810 (77.8)
 Black87 (3.7)58 (2.5)55 (2.4)36 (1.5)
 Asian76 (3.3)116 (5.0)145 (6.2)276 (11.9)
 Other167 (7.2)168 (7.2)184 (7.9)204 (8.8)
Current smoker, no. (%)*319 (13.7)246 (10.6)237 (10.2)223 (9.6)<0.0001
Region, no. (%)*,†<0.0001
 Asia58 (2.5)96 (4.1)134 (5.8)264 (11.3)
 Europe1149 (49.4)1253 (53.8)1279 (55.0)1228 (52.8)
 Latin America311 (13.4)332 (14.3)362 (15.6)401 (17.2)
 North America716 (30.8)575 (24.7)483 (20.8)372 (16.0)
 Other92 (4.0)71 (3.1)69 (3.0)61 (2.6)
BMI, median (25th, 75th), kg/m231.2 (27.7, 35.4)30.2 (27.1, 33.9)29.3 (26.7, 32.7)28.4 (26.0, 31.6)<0.0001
Height, median (25th, 75th), cm165 (158, 173)165 (158, 172)165 (158, 172)165 (159, 172)0.3250
Weight, median (25th, 75th), kg85.7 (74.3, 99.0)83.0 (72.5, 94.5)80.9 (71.0, 91.3)79.0 (69.1, 89.1)<0.0001
Waist circumference, median (25th, 75th), cm*104 (96, 113)101 (93, 110)99 (91, 107)98 (89, 105)<0.0001
Systolic BP, median (25th, 75th), mm Hg†140 (129, 151)140 (129, 150)139 (127, 150)139 (128, 150)0.0002
Diastolic BP, median (25th, 75th), mm Hg82 (76, 90)82 (76, 90)81 (76, 90)82 (76, 90)0.5490
Pulse rate, median (25th, 75th), bpm*70.0 (64.0, 78.0)70.0 (62.0, 78.0)70.0 (63.0, 76.0)70.0 (62.0, 76.0)0.0142
Family history of diabetes, no. (%)868 (37.3)896 (38.5)882 (37.9)901 (38.7)0.7525
Cardiovascular disease, no. (%)807 (34.7)743 (31.9)706 (30.3)677 (29.1)0.0003
Atrial fibrillation/flutter, no. (%)*112 (4.8)99 (4.3)79 (3.4)66 (2.8)0.0021
Pulmonary embolism/deep vein no. (%)*42 (1.8)34 (1.5)33 (1.4)20 (0.9)0.0499
COPD/emphysema/chronic bronchitis, no. (%)*149 (6.4)118 (5.1)104 (4.5)80 (3.4)<0.0001
Hypertension, no. (%)1812 (77.9)1827 (78.5)1763 (75.8)1814 (78.0)0.1151
Congestive heart failure, no. (%)*112 (4.8)80 (3.4)81 (3.5)58 (2.5)0.0003
Left ventricular hypertrophy, no. (%)72 (3.1)62 (2.7)64 (2.8)70 (3.0)0.7886
Cerebrovascular disease no. (%)220 (9.5)186 (8.0)181 (7.8)149 (6.4)0.0019
Coronary heart disease, no. (%)*,†716 (30.8)669 (28.7)635 (27.3)606 (26.1)0.0026
PAD composite, no. (%)*99 (4.3)90 (3.9)69 (3.0)51 (2.2)0.0003
ECG interpretation, no. (%)*0.0004
 Normal1053 (45.3)1095 (47.1)1178 (50.6)1199 (51.5)
 Clinically insignificant abnormality884 (38.0)865 (37.2)793 (34.1)784 (33.7)
 Clinically significant abnormality389 (16.7)367 (15.8)356 (15.3)343 (14.7)
Family history of premature CHD, no. (%)386 (16.6)395 (17.0)411 (17.7)352 (15.1)0.1245
Fasting glucose, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L†6.1 (5.7, 6.4)6.1 (5.7, 6.4)6.1 (5.7, 6.4)6.1 (5.7, 6.5)0.1925
2-hour glucose, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L†9.1 (8.4, 9.9)9.1 (8.4, 9.9)9.0 (8.3, 9.9)9.0 (8.3, 9.9)0.0665
HbA1c, median (25th, 75th), %†5.9 (5.6, 6.2)5.8 (5.6, 6.1)5.8 (5.5, 6.1)5.8 (5.5, 6.0)<0.0001
Hemoglobin, median (25th, 75th), g/L*,†146 (137, 155)147 (138, 155)146 (138, 155)148 (139, 156)0.0052
LDL cholesterol, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L*,†3.18 (2.53, 3.80)3.21 (2.60, 3.92)3.26 (2.62, 3.95)3.23 (2.63, 3.93)0.0012
HDL cholesterol, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L†1.22 (1.03, 1.46)1.24 (1.04, 1.47)1.24 (1.03, 1.50)1.25 (1.04, 1.48)0.0227
Non-HDL cholesterol, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L4.04 (3.35, 4.75)4.06 (3.41, ,4.86)4.11 (3.46, 4.83)4.04 (3.36, 4.83)0.0152
Non-HDL cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio, median (25th, 75th)0.77 (0.72, 0.81)0.77 (0.72, 0.81)0.77 (0.72, 0.81)0.76 (0.71, 0.81)0.1095
Total cholesterol, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L5.30 (4.62, 6.00)5.39 (4.68, 6.14)5.40 (4.73, 6.16)5.35 (4.66, 6.12)0.0048
Triglycerides, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L1.8 (1.3, 2.4)1.7 (1.3, 2.4)1.7 (1.2, 2.4)1.6 (1.2, 2.2)<0.0001
eGFR, median (25th, 75th), mL/min/1.73 m2 77.7 (65.4, 88.3)77.8 (67.2, 89.1)80.1 (69.5, 92.0)82.6 (71.3, 94.3)<0.0001
Albumin/creatinine ratio, median (25th, 75th), mg/mmol0.90 (0.55, 2.00)0.84 (0.51, 1.80)0.79 (0.50, 1.56)0.77 (0.50, 1.67)0.0028
Log of albumin/creatinine ratio, median (25th, 75th), mg/mmol*−0.11 (-0.60, 0.69)−0.17 (-0.67, 0.59)−0.24 (-0.69, 0.44)−0.26 (-0.69, 0.51)<0.0001
Sodium, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L*142 (141, 144)142.0 (141.0, 144.0)142.0 (141.0, 144.0)142.0 (141.0, 144.0)0.1052
Potassium, median (25th, 75th), mmol/L4.3 (4.1, 4.6)4.3 (4.1, 4.6)4.3 (4.1, 4.6)4.3 (4.1, 4.6)0.3125
White blood cell, median (25th, 75th), 109/L6.9 (5.8, 8.1)6.8 (5.8, 8.0)6.6 (5.7, 7.7)6.5 (5.5, 7.6)<0.0001
Platelet, median (25th, 75th), 109/L†254 (215, 299)254 (213, 297)252 (212, 297)247 (207, 289)<0.0001
Renal dysfunction, no. (%)44 (1.9)20 (0.9)16 (0.7)10 (0.4)<0.0001
α blocker, no. (%)153 (6.6)153 (6.6)135 (5.8)136 (5.8)0.5188
ACE inhibitor, no. (%)197 (8.5)178 (7.6)157 (6.7)144 (6.2)0.0152
Antihypertensives, no. (%)1778 (76.4)1720 (73.9)1664 (71.5)1654 (71.1)<0.0001
ARB, no. (%)11 (0.5)10 (0.4)6 (0.3)3 (0.1)0.1396
Aspirin, no. (%)892 (38.3)892 (38.3)833 (35.8)808 (34.7)0.0185
β blocker, no. (%)975 (41.9)923 (39.7)911 (39.1)857 (36.8)0.0054
Calcium channel blocker, no. (%)784 (33.7)765 (32.9)694 (29.8)769 (33.1)0.0226
Diuretic, no. (%)840 (36.1)769 (33.0)714 (30.7)637 (27.4)<0.0001
Lipid lowering agent, no. (%)907 (39.0)923 (39.7)896 (38.5)851 (36.6)0.1606
  • * In death, myocardial infarction, or stroke model.

  • † In diabetes mellitus baseline model.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; bpm, beats per minute; CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.