Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the ACCORD study participants

VariableTotal=5135Event=607No event=4528P values*
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Intensive treatment, %51.971.349.3<0.0001
Follow-up time, years3.76 (1.12)2.16 (1.32)3.97 (0.90)<0.0001
Age, years62.8 (6.8)64.8 (7.1)62.5 (6.7)<0.0001
Female, %37.240.936.80.0493
Black, %19.629.218.3<0.0001
College degree or higher, %24.818.825.60.0003
Health insurance, %84.887.384.40.0608
Alcohol use, %, ≥1 drink/week23.621.923.80.2975
Current smoker, %15.012.915.30.1181
BMI, kg/m2 32.4 (5.4)31.9 (5.5)32.5 (5.4)0.0169
Waist circumference, cm107.2 (13.6)105.7 (13.8)107.4 (13.6)0.0044
SBP, mm Hg135.7 (17.7)138.8 (18.4)135.3 (17.5)<0.0001
DBP, mm Hg74.6 (10.9)72.2 (10.9)74.9 (10.8)<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.65 (1.1)4.65 (1.1)4.65 (1.1)0.9293
Creatinine (mmol/L)0.080 (0.020)0.087 (0.022)0.079 (0.020)<0.0001
Urinary albumin creatinine ratio†15 (7–50)21 (9–109)14 (7–45)<0.0001
HbA1c (%)8.34 (1.1)8.44 (1.1)8.32 (1.1)0.0142
Time since diabetes diagnosis, years11.0 (7.7)14.3 (8.5)10.5 (7.5)<0.0001
Hypoglycemia in the last week, %8.617.67.4<0.0001
Hypertension, %82.983.482.9<0.0001
Stroke, %6.69.76.2<0.0001
Myocardial infarction, %16.418.316.20.1600
Coronary artery bypass grafting,%12.315.011.90.0019
Individual CVD history, %36.941.936.30.0077
Family CVD history, %45.845.345.90.7898
Medication, %
Antihypertensive90.595.989.8<0.0001
Insulin37.063.133.5<0.0001
Biguanide69.251.671.6<0.0001
Meglitinide12.015.511.60.0054
Sulfonylurea43.524.146.1<0.0001
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor66.766.266.80.7845
  • *22 or t-test comparing participants with and without severe hypoglycemia event.

  • †Median and IQR.

  • ACCORD, Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; SBP, systolic blood pressure.