Table 2

Adjusted associations of liver fat score with the following outcomes: (A) Matsuda Index, (B) HOMA-IR, (C) ISSI-2, (D) Insulinogenic Index/HOMA-IR, (E) fasting glucose, and (F) 2-hour glucose on the OGTT, after adjustment for covariates

ModelPredictorEstimatetP values
(A) Outcome—log Matsuda Index
 1Liver fat score 1−0.207845−2.810.005
Liver fat score ≥2−0.594855−4.90<0.0001
 2Liver fat score 1−0.198107−2.680.008
Liver fat score ≥2−0.508955−3.940.0001
 3Liver fat score 1−0.192737−2.590.01
Liver fat score ≥2−0.499132−3.850.0002
(B) Outcome—log HOMA-IR
 1Liver fat score 10.1236541.620.11
Liver fat score ≥20.5019374.00<0.0001
 2Liver fat score 10.1063411.380.17
Liver fat score ≥20.4171933.100.002
 3Liver fat score 10.1011701.300.19
Liver fat score ≥20.4100803.030.003
(C) Outcome—ISSI-2
 1Liver fat score 120.8665080.380.71
Liver fat score ≥2−198.471718−2.190.03
 2Liver fat score 131.6104520.560.57
Liver fat score ≥2−151.946792−1.540.13
 3Liver fat score 141.5054350.760.45
Liver fat score ≥2−128.090381−1.340.18
(D) Outcome—log Insulinogenic Index/HOMA-IR
 1Liver fat score 1−0.195451−1.440.15
Liver fat score ≥2−0.572836−2.550.01
 2Liver fat score 1−0.146492−1.080.28
Liver fat score ≥2−0.369876−1.540.13
 3Liver fat score 1−0.118903−0.910.36
Liver fat score ≥2−0.317762−1.380.17
(E) Outcome—fasting glucose
 1Liver fat score 10.1384011.610.11
Liver fat score ≥20.1467323.310.001
 2Liver fat score 10.1247071.530.13
Liver fat score ≥20.3038852.140.03
 3Liver fat score 10.1092501.390.17
Liver fat score ≥20.2690001.950.052
(F) Outcome—2-hour glucose on OGTT
 1Liver fat score 10.3489751.120.27
Liver fat score ≥22.2127134.34<0.0001
 2Liver fat score 10.3502121.150.25
Liver fat score ≥21.4711322.780.006
 3Liver fat score 10.3015551.030.30
Liver fat score ≥21.3424512.630.009
  • Model 3: Model 2 further adjusted for gestational glucose tolerance status.

  • Model 2: Model 1 further adjusted for duration of breast feeding in the first year.

  • Model 1: age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and body mass index.

  • HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance; ISSI-2, Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2; OGTT, gamma-glutamyltransferase.