Table 1

Demographic, clinical and metabolic characteristics of study population, stratified according to liver fat score (0, 1, or ≥2)

Liver fat score 0Liver fat score 1Liver fat score ≥2P values
(n=164) (n=66) (n=27)
Years after delivery5 (2–6)5 (2–7)3 (1–6)0.14
Age (years)40 (37–43)41 (37–44)40 (35–44)0.91
Ethnicity0.08
 White, n (%)115 (70.1)44 (66.7)13 (48.2)
 Non-white, n (%)49 (29.9)22 (33.3)14 (51.8)
Family history of T2DM, n (%)90 (55.9)44 (67.7)19 (73.1)0.10
GDM prior to this pregnancy, n (%)5 (3.1)2 (3.0)3 (11.5)0.02
Currently smoking, n (%)7 (4.2)4 (6.3)0 (0)0.51
Breast feeding in the first year (months)11 (6–12)9 (3–12)6 (1–12)0.03
Total physical activity8.5 (7.9–9.4)8.3 (7.5–8.9)8.1 (7.5–8.9)0.04
 Work index2.5 (2.0–3.0)2.4 (2.1–2.9)2.6 (2.3–2.9)0.44
 Sport index2.8 (2.5–3.5)3.0 (2.5–3.4)2.8 (2.5–3.3)0.27
 Leisure index3.0 (2.8–3.5)3.0 (2.5–3.3)3.0 (2.8–3.0)0.16
BMI (kg/m2)24.0 (21.6–27.0)27.2 (23.9–30.8)32.4 (28.1–34.2)<0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)85 (79–93)94 (85–98)102 (93–110)<0.0001
ALT15 (13–18)16 (13–19)24 (16–29)0.0007
AST18 (16–22)20 (16–23)19 (17–25)0.18
GGT12 (9–16)15 (12–20)21 (18–28)<0.0001
Insulin sensitivity/resistance
 Matsuda Index8.2 (5.7–10.9)5.5 (3.5–9.0)2.7 (1.8–3.9)<0.0001
 HOMA-IR1.2 (0.9–1.8)1.7 (1.1–2.6)3.5 (2.5–5.3)<0.0001
Beta-cell function
 ISSI-2759 (593–946)671 (536–846)446 (362–637)<0.0001
 Insulinogenic Index/HOMA-IR9.6 (6.8–14.6)8.1 (5.5–12.0)6.0 (3.3–10.8)0.009
OGTT
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.6 (4.4–4.9)4.9 (4.5–5.1)5.1 (4.8–5.7)<0.0001
 2-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.1 (5.2–7.2)6.5 (5.5–7.7)7.8 (6.8–9.4)<0.0001
  • Continuous variables are presented as median followed by IQR in parentheses. Categorical variables are presented as n followed by percentage in parentheses.

  • P values refer to overall comparison across the groups by Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables, or either χ2 or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance; ISSI-2, Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; T2DM, type 2 diabetes.