Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyStudy designExercise intervention type, duration (min), description, intensityComparatorTiming of blood glucose measurements
Bally et al 23 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 50% VO2max for 90 min with IHE with 9×10 s maximal sprints every 10 min at 120% of individual peak workload followed by 50 s recovery phase.Cycling at 50% VO2max for 90 min.During 90 min of exercise, 120 min postexercise and postexercise overnight follow-up.
Campbell et al 34 Randomized cross-over trialIntermittent running (Shuttle Test): 3×20 m walking then 1×20 m sprinting, interspersed by 4 s recovery, followed by 3×20 m run (speed corresponding to 55% VO2max) and 3×20 m (speed equating to 95% VO2peak) repeated for 45 min.Continuous treadmill running at 77% VO2max for 45 min.During, 1 hour and 23 hours postexercise.
Dubé et al 35 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 50% VO2max for 60 min with 10 s maximal sprint every 2 min.Cycling at 50% VO2max for 60 min.*During exercise.
Guelfi et al 16 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 40% VO2max for 30 min with 16×4 s maximal sprints every 2 min.Cycling at 40% VO2max for 30 min.During and up to 60 min of recovery or until BG falls <4 mmol/L.
Hinojosa and Heiss30 Cross-over trialWalking at 50%–60% maximum heart rate for 15 min.Sitting quietly.During and up to 120 min following exercise.
Iscoe and Riddell27 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 50% VO2max with 9×15 s maximal sprints every 5 min.Cycling at 55% VO2max.During and up to 24 hours following exercise.
Jankovec et al 24 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 60% hour reserve for 2×30 min.Resting.During exercise.
Maran et al 25 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 40% VO2max with 15×5 s maximal sprints at 85%.Cycling at 40% VO2max.During and up to 24 hours following exercise.
Moser et al 28 Cross-over trialCycling at control A, B or C followed by 120 s, 60 s or 20 s recovery period, followed by high-intensity peak workload (PPeak) for 20 s (followed by 3 s active recovery at 40W and 3 s passive recovery at 0W).Cycling at 3 target workloads:
A: 5% Pmax from IET below PLTP1.
B: 5% Pmax from IET above PLTP1.
C: 5% Pmax from IET below PLTP2.
During and 24 hours postexercise.
Peter et al 31 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 65% (SD 10.1%) VO2peak.Resting.During and
2 hours postexercise.
Rabasa-Lhoret et al 26 Randomized cross-over trialCycling at 25%, 50%, or 75% VO2max for 30 or 60 min.Resting.During exercise (30 and 90 min), 18 hours postexercise and at rest.
Soo et al 32 Randomized partial cross-over trialCycling at 60% VO2max (50% hour reserve) for 45 min.Resting.During and 60 min following exercise.
Turner et al 37 Randomized cross-over trialLifting weights for 14 min (1 set of 8 exercises), 28 min (2 sets) or 42 min (3 sets).Resting for 14 min.At rest and up to 60 min of recovery postexercise.
Yamanouchi et al 33 Cross-over trialWalking at <50% VO2max for 30 min.Resting.During and 2 hours, postexercise.
Yardley et al 29 Part-randomized cross-over trial
  1. Weightlifting: 3 sets (7 exercises ×8 repetitions).

  2. Walking/running at 60% VO2max for 45 min.

Resting.During exercise, 6 hours postexercise and 24 hours postexercise.
  • *Third exercise condition excluded as not comparable.

  • BG, blood glucose; IET, incremental exercise test; IHE, intermittent high-intensity exercise; PLTP1, power output at the first lactate turn point; PLTP2, power output at the second lactate turn point; Pmax, maximal power output; VO2max, maximal oxygen uptake; VO2peak, peak oxygen uptake; W, watt.