Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

StudyReferenceStudy designDescription intervention versus control*Intervention (n)Control (n)Level of feeding control PUFA dose (En%)DiabetesAge (SD) (years)BMI (SDDuration (weeks)Industry funding
Bhathena e t al, 1989, 1§ 21 39 ParallelPUFA-SFA (low fat)1615Full2.6No28 (5)22.816No
Bhathena e t al, 1989, 2§ ParallelPUFA-SFA (high fat)1615Full5.0No28 (5)22.816No
Bjermo e t al, 2012 27 ParallelPUFA-SFA3229Partial9.5No57 (10)30.8 (3.8)10No
Brassard e t al, 2017, 1 40 Crossover PUFA-SFA (cheese)77Full6.7No39 (14)30.8 (6.1)4Full
Brassard e t al, 2017, 2CrossoverPUFA-SFA (butter)77Full6.7No39 (14)30.8 (6.1)4Full
Brassard e t al, 2017, 3CrossoverPUFA-Carbohydrate76Full6.7No39 (14)30.8 (6.1)4Full
Gillingham e t al, 2011 41 CrossoverOmega-3 PUFA-SFA36Full5.8No48 (12)28.6 (4.6)4Full
Karupaiah e t al, 2016 42 CrossoverPUFA-SFA34Full5.2No23 (7)25.1 (4.7)4Full
Keogh e t al, 2005, 1 43 Crossover PUFA-Carbohydrate40Partial12.0No56 (11)27.3 (5.1)3
Keogh e t al, 2005, 2CrossoverPUFA-SFA40Partial11.0No56 (11)27.3 (5.1)3
Kriketos et al, 2001 28 ParallelPUFA-SFA1719Full6.3No47 (9)33.5 (3.4)10No
Lichtenstein et al, 2003, 1 44 Crossover PUFA (oil)-SFA36Full10.1No63 (6)27.4 (3)5No
Lichtenstein e t al, 2003, 2CrossoverPUFA (margarine)-SFA36Full11.1No63 (6)27.4 (3)5No
Rosqvist et al, 2014 31 ParallelPUFA-SFA1819Partial8.4No27 (4)20.5 (2.3)7No
Schwab et al, 1997** 19 CrossoverPUFA-SFA9Partial13.0No23 (1)21.1 (2)3No
St-Onge et al, 2007, 1** 20 Crossover PUFA-Carbohydrate33Full4.5No44 (3)29.4 (0.9)3.6Partial
St-Onge et al, 2007, 2**CrossoverPUFA-SFA33Full3.9No44 (3)29.4 (0.9)3.6Partial
Vafeiadou et al, 2015§ 22 45 ParallelPUFA-SFA6665Partial7.5No44 (8)26.7 (4)16Partial
Vega-Lopez e t al, 2006§ 23 46 CrossoverPUFA-SFA15Full9.0No64 (6)26 (2.4)5No
  • *PUFA refers to omega-6 PUFA, unless otherwise stated.

  • †Level of feeding control is defined as: full, providing whole diets; or partial, providing selected (fatty acid rich) foods.

  • ‡Industry funding is defined as: full, industry providing full funding; partial, industry providing part of funding; or no, no industry funding.

  • §Data not reported in the paper were obtained from other publications about the same trial.

  • ¶n corrected for within trial correlation (see the Methods section).

  • **Data not reported in the paper were obtained from the authors.

  • En%, percentage of daily energy; n, number; PUFA, poly-unsaturated fatty acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids.