Table 1

Baseline characteristics in patients with PD-1 inhibitor-induced diabetes prior to initiation of PD-1 inhibitor

Baseline characteristicsAll cases (n=21)New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes (n=12)Worsening of type 2 diabetes (n=9)
N (%) or median (IQR)
Age at ICI initiation (years)61.3 (54.5–70)67.9 (60.2–71.2)57.4 (51–62.9)
Male12 (57.1)6 (50)6 (66.7)
Race
 White20 (95.2)12 (100)8 (88.9)
 Black1 (4.8)0 (0)1 (11.1)
 Body mass index (kg/m2) at ICI initiation31.5 (25–36.7)32.2 (24.9–37.7)27.5 (24.9–35.6)
Personal history of autoimmunity3 (14.3)2 (16.7)1 (11.1)
 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis3 (14.3)2 (16.7)1 (11.1)
Family history of autoimmunity (n=15)5 (23.8)4/11 (33.3)1/4 (11.1)
 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis1 (4.8)1 (8.3)
 Celiac disease1 (4.8)1 (8.3)
 Ulcerative colitis1 (4.8)1 (8.3)
 Psoriasis1 (4.8)1 (11.1)
 Type 1 diabetes1 (4.8)1 (8.3)
Malignancy
 Lung cancer5 (25)2 (16.7)3 (33.3)
 Melanoma9 (45)7 (58.3)2 (22.2)
 Breast cancer2 (10)1 (8.3)1 (11.1)
 Renal cell cancer1 (5)1 (8.3)
 Multiple myeloma1 (5)1 (8.3)
 Lymphoma1 (5)1 (11.1)
 Merkel cell cancer1 (5)1 (8.3)
 Esophageal cancer1 (5)1 (11.1)
 Pancreatic cancer1 (5)1 (11.1)
RPG (mg/dL) at ICI initiation116 (98–154)115 (84–140)158 (107–254)
FPG (mg/dL) at ICI initiation108 (99–132)102 (93–108)132 (114–153)
HbA1c (%) at ICI initiation8 (6.8–8.6)8 (6.8–8.6)
ICI therapy
 Pembrolizumab17 (81)11 (91.7)6 (66.7)
 Nivolumab4 (19)1 (8.3)3 (33.3)
Other ICI used2 (9.5)1 (8.3)1 (11.1)
 Ipilimumab2 (9.5)1 (8.3)1 (11.1)
 Glucocorticoid use7 (35)4 (33.3)3 (33.3)
  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1; RPG, random plasma glucose.