Table 3

Risk of CV events and mortality for patient characteristics

Primary prevention, n=107 587Secondary prevention, n=14 327
CV eventsAll-cause mortalityCV mortalityCV eventsAll-cause mortalityCV mortality
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Sex, ref=female
Male1.54 (1.48 to 1.60)1.43 (1.37 to 1.49)1.62 (1.50 to 1.75)1.35 (1.28 to 1.42)1.48 (1.38 to 1.59)1.62 (1.46 to 1.80)
Age (years), ref=61–80
18–600.61 (0.58 to 0.65)0.45 (0.42 to 0.49)0.45 (0.38 to 0.52)0.95 (0.87 to 1.05)0.50 (0.41 to 0.61)0.48 (0.36 to 0.65)
>801.46 (1.39 to 1.54)2.19 (2.09 to 2.29)2.32 (2.13 to 2.52)1.35 (1.27 to 1.43)2.13 (1.99 to 2.29)2.35 (2.12 to 2.61)
Country of birth, ref=Sweden
Other Nordic country1.18 (1.11 to 1.27)1.02 (0.95 to 1.10)1.10 (0.96 to 1.25)1.14 (1.04 to 1.25)0.99 (0.88 to 1.12)1.06 (0.89 to 1.26)
Other European Union-15* country0.89 (0.78 to 1.01)0.82 (0.72 to 0.94)0.77 (0.59 to 1.01)1.18 (1.00 to 1.39)1.07 (0.87 to 1.32)1.22 (0.91 to 1.63)
Other European country/Soviet Union1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)0.89 (0.81 to 0.97)0.86 (0.72 to 1.03)1.08 (0.97 to 1.21)0.86 (0.74 to 1.00)0.84 (0.67 to 1.05)
Africa0.68 (0.57 to 0.81)0.47 (0.37 to 0.61)0.41 (0.24 to 0.69)0.97 (0.72 to 1.30)0.92 (0.59 to 1.43)1.02 (0.54 to 1.90)
The Americas0.84 (0.69 to 1.01)0.64 (0.51 to 0.81)0.64 (0.41 to 1.00)0.70 (0.52 to 0.96)0.88 (0.60 to 1.30)0.73 (0.39 to 1.37)
Asia/Oceania1.15 (1.07 to 1.25)0.48 (0.43 to 0.54)0.63 (0.51 to 0.77)1.15 (1.02 to 1.30)0.71 (0.58 to 0.87)0.74 (0.55 to 1.00)
Unknown1.38 (0.91 to 2.11)0.82 (0.44 to 1.54)0.89 (0.29 to 2.79)1.47 (0.70 to 3.10)NANA
Marital status, ref=married
Unmarried0.87 (0.83 to 0.92)1.18 (1.12 to 1.25)1.41 (1.27 to 1.57)0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)1.26 (1.13 to 1.40)1.46 (1.26 to 1.69)
Divorced1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)1.11 (1.05 to 1.17)1.17 (1.06 to 1.30)1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)1.05 (0.96 to 1.14)1.06 (0.93 to 1.21)
Widow(er)1.14 (1.09 to 1.20)1.20 (1.14 to 1.26)1.38 (1.25 to 1.51)1.06 (0.99 to 1.13)1.20 (1.11 to 1.29)1.19 (1.06 to 1.33)
Education level, ref=mandatory school
Upper secondary school0.95 (0.91 to 0.98)0.93 (0.89 to 0.96)0.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.98 (0.93 to 1.03)0.91 (0.85 to 0.97)0.89 (0.81 to 0.98)
Postsecondary education0.92 (0.87 to 0.98)0.86 (0.80 to 0.92)0.81 (0.71 to 0.92)0.98 (0.90 to 1.07)0.93 (0.83 to 1.04)0.86 (0.73 to 1.02)
Employment status, ref=employed
Unemployed1.15 (1.08 to 1.23)1.46 (1.34 to 1.59)1.42 (1.21 to 1.67)1.05 (0.95 to 1.17)1.26 (1.06 to 1.51)1.12 (0.86 to 1.45)
Retired†1.30 (1.24 to 1.37)1.93 (1.82 to 2.04)1.93 (1.72 to 2.16)1.18 (1.10 to 1.27)1.62 (1.45 to 1.81)1.43 (1.23 to 1.68)
Profession, ref=upper white-collar
Lower white-collar1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)1.00 (0.93 to 1.07)1.04 (0.91 to 1.18)1.01 (0.92 to 1.11)1.03 (0.92 to 1.15)1.07 (0.91 to 1.26)
Blue-collar1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)1.02 (0.93 to 1.12)1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.99 (0.88 to 1.12)
Others1.05 (0.96 to 1.14)1.14 (1.05 to 1.25)0.98 (0.82 to 1.16)1.00 (0.90 to 1.12)1.18 (1.03 to 1.34)1.13 (0.93 to 1.36)
Income per household member, ref=quartile 4
Quartile 11.35 (1.27 to 1.44)1.45 (1.35 to 1.56)1.76 (1.54 to 2.02)1.20 (1.11 to 1.30)1.17 (1.05 to 1.30)1.30 (1.11 to 1.53)
Quartile 21.25 (1.18 to 1.33)1.34 (1.26 to 1.43)1.44 (1.26 to 1.64)1.13 (1.05 to 1.22)1.15 (1.04 to 1.27)1.23 (1.06 to 1.43)
Quartile 31.09 (1.03 to 1.16)1.19 (1.11 to 1.27)1.21 (1.05 to 1.38)1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)1.08 (0.98 to 1.19)1.07 (0.92 to 1.24)
Diabetes medication, ref=yes
No1.12 (1.07 to 1.16)1.09 (1.04 to 1.14)1.09 (1.01 to 1.19)1.09 (1.03 to 1.15)1.03 (0.96 to 1.10)1.07 (0.97 to 1.19)
Anticoagulants, ref=yes
No0.61 (0.59 to 0.64)0.75 (0.73 to 0.78)0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)0.78 (0.73 to 0.83)0.96 (0.89 to 1.03)0.77 (0.68 to 0.86)
Antihypertensives, ref=yes
No0.87 (0.83 to 0.91)0.93 (0.89 to 0.98)0.85 (0.77 to 0.93)0.93 (0.86 to 1.00)1.02 (0.93 to 1.13)0.98 (0.85 to 1.13)
Kidney disease, ref=no
Yes1.23 (1.13 to 1.34)2.08 (1.96 to 2.21)1.93 (1.72 to 2.16)0.97 (0.84 to 1.11)1.92 (1.75 to 2.11)1.67 (1.46 to 1.92)
Cancer diagnosis‡, ref=no
Yes1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)1.87 (1.76 to 2.00)1.12 (0.96 to 1.30)1.09 (0.98 to 1.21)1.38 (1.23 to 1.55)1.08 (0.90 to 1.30)
Diabetes duration
Per year1.01 (1.01 to 1.02)1.01 (1.01 to 1.01)1.02 (1.01 to 1.02)1.01 (1.01 to 1.02)1.01 (1.01 to 1.02)1.02 (1.01 to 1.02)
HbA1c (mmol/mol), ref=below 42
42–521.09 (1.03 to 1.15)0.93 (0.88 to 0.99)0.99 (0.88 to 1.12)1.02 (0.94 to 1.10)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)1.00 (0.86 to 1.17)
>521.29 (1.21 to 1.37)1.10 (1.04 to 1.17)1.27 (1.12 to 1.43)1.21 (1.11 to 1.31)1.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.25 (1.07 to 1.47)
eGFR, ref=60 or more
<60 m1.19 (1.13 to 1.24)1.22 (1.17 to 1.28)1.31 (1.21 to 1.42)1.16 (1.10 to 1.23)1.33 (1.25 to 1.42)1.42 (1.29 to 1.56)
Cholesterol levels, ref=LDL <2.5, HDL <1.0 (men)/1.3 (women), triglycerides <2.0
LDL ≥2.51.22 (1.17 to 1.26)0.93 (0.90 to 0.97)1.05 (0.98 to 1.13)1.08 (1.03 to 1.14)1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)1.14 (1.04 to 1.24)
HDL ≥1.0 (men)/1.3 (women)0.91 (0.88 to 0.95)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)0.97 (0.90 to 1.05)0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)0.88 (0.83 to 0.94)0.88 (0.80 to 0.97)
Triglycerides ≥2.01.09 (1.05 to 1.13)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)1.07 (0.99 to 1.15)1.03 (0.97 to 1.08)0.91 (0.85 to 0.97)0.97 (0.88 to 1.07)
BMI, ref=<25
25–291.00 (0.95 to 1.05)0.72 (0.69 to 0.75)0.78 (0.71 to 0.85)1.02 (0.96 to 1.09)0.79 (0.73 to 0.85)0.80 (0.71 to 0.89)
≥300.93 (0.89 to 0.98)0.67 (0.64 to 0.70)0.74 (0.68 to 0.82)1.02 (0.95 to 1.10)0.70 (0.65 to 0.76)0.72 (0.64 to 0.82)
Blood pressure (mm Hg), ref=systolic <130, diastolic <80
Systolic ≥1301.14 (1.10 to 1.19)0.84 (0.81 to 0.88)0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)0.96 (0.91 to 1.01)0.81 (0.76 to 0.86)0.80 (0.73 to 0.88)
Diastolic ≥800.97 (0.94 to 1.01)0.93 (0.90 to 0.97)0.92 (0.85 to 0.98)0.97 (0.92 to 1.02)0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)
Microalbuminuria, ref=no
Yes1.16 (1.11 to 1.21)1.26 (1.21 to 1.31)1.32 (1.22 to 1.42)1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)1.19 (1.12 to 1.27)1.19 (1.08 to 1.31)
Macroalbuminuria, ref=no
Yes1.28 (1.21 to 1.36)1.40 (1.32 to 1.48)1.56 (1.42 to 1.72)1.16 (1.07 to 1.25)1.38 (1.27 to 1.50)1.38 (1.23 to 1.56)
Physical activity§, ref=daily
<1 time per week1.25 (1.20 to 1.31)1.79 (1.71 to 1.88)1.85 (1.69 to 2.03)1.17 (1.10 to 1.25)1.72 (1.59 to 1.87)1.74 (1.55 to 1.96)
1–2 times per week1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)1.26 (1.20 to 1.33)1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)1.05 (0.98 to 1.12)1.18 (1.07 to 1.29)1.19 (1.04 to 1.38)
3–5 times per week0.99 (0.94 to 1.03)1.04 (0.98 to 1.10)0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)1.00 (0.93 to 1.07)1.05 (0.94 to 1.16)1.04 (0.89 to 1.21)
Smoking¶, ref=no
Yes1.16 (1.11 to 1.22)1.38 (1.31 to 1.44)1.38 (1.26 to 1.51)1.07 (1.00 to 1.14)1.17 (1.07 to 1.28)1.23 (1.08 to 1.41)
  • Adjusted HR (with 95% CI) for any CV events, all-cause mortality and CV mortality for patient characteristics among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by prevention type.

  • *Includes Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden and Great Britain.

  • †If age 65 years or older and unemployed.

  • ‡Within 5 years prior to baseline.

  • §30 min walk or equivalent.

  • ¶At least one cigarette or pipe per day or quit smoking within 3 months.

  • BMI, body mass index;CV, cardiovascular;HDL, high-density lipoprotein;HR, hazard ratio;HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c;IQR, interquartile range;LDL, low-density lipoprotein;NA, not applicable;SD, standard deviation;TSEK, thousand Swedish Krona; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ref, reference.