Table 4B

Adjusted HRs of major amputations for people with type 1 diabetes vs controls and 95% CIs for time-updated mean HbA1c categories and coexisting normoalbuminuria and eGFR >60 mL/min

Amputation above ankleHR (95% CI), p value
Diabetes duration 30yearsDiabetes duration 40yearsDiabetes duration 50yearsDiabetes duration 60years
Time-updated mean HbA1c categories and albuminuria
Controls (reference)1.001.001.001.00
≤52 mmol/mol (≤6.9%)—normoalbuminuria5.6 (3.1 to 10.2)*7.3 (4.1 to 13.2)*9.5 (5.3 to 17.2)*12.4 (6.7 to 22.8)*
53–62 mmol/mol (7.0%–7.8%)—normoalbuminuria8.9 (6.0 to 13.1)*11.6 (8.0 to 16.7)*15.0 (10.3 to 21.9)*19.5 (13.0 to 29.3)*
63–72 mmol/mol (7.9%–8.7%)—normoalbuminuria11.1 (7.7 to 16.2)*14.5 (10.1 to 20.7)*18.8 (13.0 to 27.1)*24.4 (16.3 to 36.5)*
73–82 mmol/mol (8.8%–9.6%)—normoalbuminuria17.6 (11.3 to 27.4)*22.9 (14.9 to 35.2)*29.7 (19.1 to 46.1)*38.6 (24.1 to 61.7)*
≥83 mmol/mol (≥9.7%)—normoalbuminuria71.7 (46.6 to 110.3)*93.2 (61.1 to 142.1)*121.0 (78.3 to 186.9)*157.2 (98.5 to 251.1)*
≤52 mmol/mol (≤6.9%)—not normoalbuminuria17.1 (9.7 to 30.1)*22.2 (12.9 to 38.4)*28.9 (16.7 to 49.8)*37.5 (21.4 to 65.8)*
53–62 mmol/mol (7.0%–7.8%)—not normoalbuminuria25.9 (18.0 to 37.4)*33.7 (23.9 to 47.4)*43.7 (31.1 to 61.5)*56.8 (39.3 to 82.2)*
63–72 mmol/mol (7.9%–8.7%)—not normoalbuminuria41.2 (29.9 to 56.8)*53.5 (39.7 to 72.0)*69.5 (51.3 to 94.1)*90.3 (64.3 to 126.7)*
73–82 mmol/mol (8.8%–9.6%)—not normoalbuminuria55.0 (39.4 to 76.9)*71.5 (52.1 to 98.1)*92.8 (67.0 to 128.6)*120.7 (84.0 to 173.3)*
≥83 mmol/mol (≥9.7%)—not normoalbuminuria139.2 (99.4 to 195.0)*180.9 (131.4 to 248.9)*234.8 (168.7 to 326.7)*305.2 (211.4 to 440.7)*
Time-updated mean HbA1c categories and eGFR
≤52 mmol/mol (≤6.9%)—eGFR ≥606.8 (3.9 to 11.7)*8.6 (5.0 to 14.8)*11.0 (6.4 to 19.0)*14.1 (8.0 to 24.8)*
53–62 mmol/mol (7.0%–7.8%)—eGFR ≥6010.3 (7.1 to14.8)*13.1 (9.3 to 18.5)*16.8 (11.8 to 23.9)*21.4 (14.5 to 31.5)*
63–72 mmol/mol (7.9%–8.7%)—eGFR ≥6016.0 (11.5 to 22.2)*20.4 (15.0 to 27.9)*26.1 (18.9 to 36.0)*33.3 (23.2 to 47.8)*
73–82 mmol/mol (8.8%–9.6%)—eGFR ≥6019.4 (13.1 to 28.7)*24.8 (17.0 to 36.2)*31.7 (21.5 to 46.7)*40.4 (26.5 to 61.8)*
≥83 mmol/mol (≥9.7%)—eGFR ≥6067.3 (45.3 to 99.8)*85.9 (58.4 to 126.3)*109.6 (73.4 to 163.8)*140.0 (90.2 to 217.2)*
≤52 mmol/mol (≤6.9%)—eGFR <6017.2 (9.4 to 31.2)*21.9 (12.3 to 39.1)*28.0 (15.7 to 49.8)*35.7 (19.7 to 64.6)*
53–62 mmol/mol (7.0%–7.8%)—eGFR <6024.6 (16.5 to 36.7)*31.4 (21.6 to 45.7)*40.1 (27.6 to 58.3)*51.2 (34.5 to 76.2)*
63–72 mmol/mol (7.9%–8.7%)—eGFR <6039.4 (27.6 to 56.4)*50.4 (36.1 to 70.2)*64.3 (45.9 to 90.0)*82.1 (56.8 to 118.5)*
73–82 mmol/mol (8.8%–9.6%)—eGFR <6069.0 (47.7 to 99.9)*88.1 (62.3 to 124.8)*112.5 (79.1 to 160.0)*143.6 (97.9 to 210.7)*
≥83 mmol/mol (≥9.7%)—eGFR <60166.2 (114.5 to 241.4)*212.3 (149.3 to 301.9)*271.0 (189.4 to 387.6)*346.0 (234.3 to 510.8)*
  • Adjusted for time-updated age, sex, born in Sweden, maximum educational level, baseline comorbidities and time-updated diabetes duration centered at 30, 40, 50 and 60 years.

  • *Significant at p<0.0001.

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.