Table 1

Participant baseline characteristics

CharacteristicHIGHMODLOWCONTROLTotal
n=71n=65n=74n=77n=287
Sex, n (%)
 Men22 (31.0)14 (21.5)14 (18.9)15 (19.5)65 (22.6)
 Women49 (69.0)51 (78.5)60 (81.1)62 (80.5)222 (77.4)
Age (years), mean (SD)55.2 (11.1)54.1 (9.9)53.9 (11.6)53.3 (9.0)54.1 (10.5)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)36.4 (4.0)36.3 (4.0)36.0 (4.0)36.4 (3.9)36.3 (3.9)
Body weight (kg), mean (SD)100.1 (0.8)100.3 (0.8)100.3 (0.6)101.5 (0.4)100.7 (0.6)
HbA1c (%), mean (SD)5.9 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)5.9 (0.2)
HbA1c (mmol/mol), mean (SD)41.4 (2.2)41.3 (2.2)41.0 (2.2)41.4 (2.2)41.0 (2.2)
Fasting glucose/mmol/L, mean (SD)5.3 (0.5)5.3 (0.5)5.2 (0.5)5.4 (0.5)5.3 (0.5)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic/Latino3 (4.2)3 (4.6)2 (2.7)3 (3.9)11 (3.8)
Race, n (%)
 White57 (80.3)58 (89.2)58 (78.4)60 (77.9)233 (81.2)
 African-American/Black10 (14.1)6 (9.2)14 (18.9)15 (19.5)45 (15.7)
 Other/multiple4 (5.6)1 (1.6)2 (2.7)2 (2.6)9 (3.1)
Highest level of education, n (%)
 Less than high school2 (2.8)3 (4.6)2 (2.7)2 (2.5)9 (3.1)
 High school/GED only12 (16.9)12 (18.5)14 (18.9)14 (18.2)52 (18.2)
 Vocational or trade school10 (14.1)11 (16.9)12 (16.2)9 (11.7)42 (14.6)
 Some college or professional school23 (32.4)20 (30.8)19 (25.7)26 (33.7)88 (30.7)
 Associate’s degree6 (8.5)9 (13.8)9 (12.2)9 (11.7)33 (11.5)
 Bachelor’s degree13 (18.3)4 (6.2)11 (14.8)8 (10.4)36 (12.5)
 Advanced degree5 (7.0)6 (9.2)7 (9.5)7 (9.1)25 (8.7)
 No response0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (2.5)2 (0.7)
Total annual family income, n (%)
 Less than $10 0004 (5.6)3 (4.6)1 (1.4)3 (3.9)11 (3.8)
 $10 000–$19 0001 (1.4)5 (7.7)5 (6.8)11 (14.3)22 (7.7)
 $20 000–$34 9997 (9.9)7 (10.8)18 (23.4)15 (19.5)47 (16.4)
 $35 000–$49 99916 (22.5)15 (23.1)8 (10.8)9 (11.7)48 (16.7)
 $50 000–$74 00020 (28.2)15 (23.1)20 (27.0)17 (22.1)72 (25.1)
 $75 000–$99 9998 (11.3)5 (7.7)9 (12.2)12 (15.6)34 (11.8)
 $100 000+11 (15.5)11 (16.9)9 (12.2)9 (11.7)40 (13.9)
 No response4 (5.6)4 (6.2)4 (5.4)1 (1.3)13 (4.5)
  • BMI, body mass index; GED, General Educational Development.