Table 2

Differences in study variables according to neuropathy status among participants with type 2 DM

VariableNeuropathy status
Nociceptive (score12,n=117)Unclear neuropathy (score1319,n=58)Neuropathy (score19,n=64)P value*
Age (year)55.41±8.26†59.79±9.27†‡55.55±9.57‡<0.01
Gender
Male59 (50.4)25 (43.1)15 (23.4)<0.01
Female58 (49.6)33 (56.9)49 (76.6)
BMI (kg/m2)30.42±3.9431.17±5.1431.95±4.440.08
Smoking
 Yes21 (17.9)11 (19)11 (17.2)0.97
 No96 (82.1)47 (81)53 (82.8)
Duration of DM (year)6 (2–10)6.5 (4–10)6 (3–11)0.62
FBG (mmol/L)8.6 (6.6–12.28)8.5 (6.98–11.05)8.5 (6–13.05)0.91
HbA1c (%)7.68 (6.79–9.20)7.59 (6.84–9.48)8.02 (6.77–9.64)0.79
SBP (mm Hg)138.67±18.08139.67±17.41135±13.380.25
DBP (mm Hg)83.75±10.5282.43±11.1182.03±8.790.51
25-hydroxyvitamin D (ng/mL)14.34 (8.86–21.65)15.58 (8.29–25.73)13.77 (7.43–23.85)0.83
Vitamin D status
Deficient (<20 ng/mL)82 (70.1)36 (62.1)44 (68.8)0.55
Insufficient (20–30 ng/mL)22 (18.8)17 (29.3)12 (18.8)
Sufficient (>30 ng/mL)13 (11.1)5 (8.6)8 (12.5)
On neuropathic pain medication (Gabapentin)
Yes5 (4.3)6 (10.3)5 (7.8)0.26
No112 (95.7)52 (89.7)59 (92.2)
  • *Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were determined using one way analysis of variance test with post hoc analysis or Kruskal-Wallis H test for continuous variables and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Data were expressed as frequency (%), mean±SD or median (25th–75th percentiles). Neuropathy status was determined using PainDETECT questionnaire.21

  • †Post-hoc analysis revealed significant difference in age between nociceptive and unclear neuropathy groups.

  • ‡Post-hoc analysis revealed significant difference in age between unclear neuropathy and neuropathy groups.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; SBP, systolic blood pressure.