Table 1

Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes having controlled or uncontrolled glycemia

HbA1c (%)
OverallControlled (HbA1c <7; <53 mmol/mol)Uncontrolled (HbA1c ≥7; ≥53 mmol/mol)P value
n (%)n (%)
Total55 63913 04542 594
Age, mean±SD (years)54.31±11.1153.58±11.3254.53±11.03
 ≤5529 5987247 (24.48)22 351 (75.52)<0.0001
 56–6517 0373832 (22.49)13 205 (77.51)
 >6590041966 (21.83)7038 (78.17)
Gender
 Male30 0956916 (22.98)23 179 (77.02)0.0018
 Female25 1246047 (24.07)19 077 (75.93)
Diabetes duration
 Recently diagnosed61741749 (28.33)4425 (71.67)<0.0001
 Past 1–2 years10 3752722 (26.24)7653 (73.76)
 Past 2–5 years16 6353771 (22.67)12 864 (77.33)
 >5 years20 9204405 (21.06)16 515 (78.94)
Any microvascular complication19 8493894 (19.62)15 955 (80.38)<0.0001
 Neuropathy14 9663069 (20.51)11 897 (79.49)<0.0001
 Nephropathy4759805 (16.92)3954 (83.08)<0.0001
 Retinopathy3964628 (15.84)3336 (84.16)<0.0001
BMI*(kg/m2), mean±SD26.37±3.3126.13±3.3526.44±3.3
 Normal68671805 (26.29)5062 (73.71)<0.0001
 Overweight11 3322859 (25.23)8473 (74.77)
 Obese37 4408381 (22.39)29 059 (77.61)
Blood pressure† (mm Hg)
 Normal2651812 (30.63)1839 (69.37)<0.0001
 Prehypertension37 3869270 (24.8)28 116 (75.2)
 Stage I hypertension13 9432735 (19.62)11 208 (80.38)
 Stage II hypertension1658228 (13.75)1430 (86.25)
FBG (mg/dL)‡, mean±SD126.8±19.02118.24±18.45129.42±18.41
 FBG <13032 0259967 (31.12)22 058 (68.88)<0.0001
 FBG >13023 6143078 (13.03)20 536 (86.97)
PPG (mg/dL)§, mean±SD198.27±43.51176.92±34.02204.81±44
 PPG <18020 6638055 (38.98)12 608 (61.02)<0.0001
 PPG ≥18034 9764990 (14.27)29 986 (85.73)
  • Percentages are based on the overall counts. Hence, they may not add to 100% due to the presence of missing responses.

  • *BMI (kg/m2): normal BMI: 18.0–22.9; overweight: 23.0–24.9; obese: >25.

  • †Blood pressure (mm Hg): normal (SBP <120 and DBP <80), prehypertension (SBP=120–139 or DBP=80–89), stage I hypertension (SBP=140–159 or DBP=90–99), stage II hypertension (SBP ≥160 or DBP ≥100).

  • ‡FBG (mg/dL): FBG <130, 7.2 mmol/L and FBG >130, 7.2 mmol/L.

  • §PPG (mg/dL): PPG <180, 10 mmol/L and PPG ≥180, 10 mmol/L.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; PPG, post-prandial blood glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure.