Table 1

Demographic and baseline characteristics of study tertiles

Lowest tertile
(n=14)
Middle tertile
(n=14)
Highest tertile
(n=14)
P value*
Age (years)58.7 (9)56 (9)55.5 (8.5)0.6
Female sex (%)42.842.864.30.4
Race/ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic White42.871.435.70.1
 African-American7.27.27.21
 Asian000
 Hispanic000
 Other/not reported5021.457.10.1
Diabetes duration (years)11.5 (8)11 (9)9 (7.3)0.6
Weight (kg)107.6 (20.3)107.4 (19.2)107.4 (24)0.9
Body mass index (kg/m2)36.5 (6.5)34.5 (4.5)37.4 (5.9)0.4
A1C (%)7.5 (1.0)8.0 (1.5)8.0 (1.6)0.6
Use of insulin therapy (%)42.935.757.10.5
Weight-adjusted insulin dose (units/kg/day)†0.49 (0.3)0.85 (0.4)0.44 (0.3)0.1
Other diabetes medications (%)
 Metformin9364860.1
 SFUs217140.5
 DPP-4 inhibitors00140.1
 SGLT-2 inhibitors5079570.3
 GLP-1 analogs6457500.7
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)129 (15)129 (15)134 (17)0.6
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)77 (8)77 (7)79 (6)0.6
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)144 (21)164 (34)173 (40)0.08
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)74 (17)88 (33)88 (26)0.3
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)48 (12)46 (11)56 (16)0.1
Triglycerides (mg/dL)113 (30)188 (226)150 (82)0.4
  • Data are mean (SD) or %.

  • *One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Pearson’s χ2 test.

  • †For insulin-treated subjects.

  • DPP, dipeptidyl peptidase; GLP, glucagon-like-peptide; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SFU, sulfonylurea; SGLT, sodium-glucose transport proteins.