Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the cohort stratified by diabetes status at 5-year follow-up

CharacteristicOverallYesNoP value
N719146 (20.3%)573 (79.7%)
Age (years)55.1±8.555.7±8.154.9±8.60.33
Males318 (44.2%)57 (39.0%)261 (45.5%)0.16
Race/ethnicity
 Whites304 (42.3%)58 (39.7%)246 (42.9%)0.48
 Hispanics239 (33.2%)52 (35.6%)187 (32.6%)0.49
 African-Americans176 (24.5%)36 (24.7%)140 (24.4%)>0.99
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.4±5.631.4±6.727.7±5.0<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)98.1±11.1106.5±12.696.0±9.7<0.001
Acute insulin response (µU/ml)52.6±49.731.6±32.857.8±51.9<0.001
Insulin sensitivity (x10-4 min-1[µU’ml]-1)2.2±2.11.3±1.62.4±2.2<0.001
Family history of diabetes285 (39.6%)73 (50.0%)212 (37.0%)0.01
Education >12 grade138 (19.2%)24 (16.4%)114 (19.9%)0.20
Impaired glucose tolerance244 (33.9%)94 (64.4%)150 (26.2%)<0.001
Estimated energy expenditure (kcal/kg/year)14855.9±2739.314819.6±2578.114865.1±2780.70.86
Alcohol use0.15
 Current370 (51.5%)80 (54.8%)290 (50.6%)
 Former267 (37.1%)45 (30.8%)222 (38.7%)
Smoking history0.01
 Current105 (14.6%)33 (22.6%)72 (12.6%)
 Former282 (39.2%)49 (33.6%)233 (40.7%)
Dietary carbohydrate intake (g/day)214.9±86.5209.8±89.5216.2±85.70.42
Myristic acid (14:0)1.0±0.41.1±0.31.0±0.40.24
Palmitic acid (16:0)21.6±2.022.3±2.121.5±2.0<0.001
Stearic acid (18:0)6.8±0.76.8±0.76.8±0.7>0.99
Myristoleic acid (14:1n5)0.1±0.050.1±0.050.1±0.050.88
Palmitoleic acid (16:1n7)2.2±0.92.5±1.02.2±0.9<0.001
Oleic acid (18:1n9)19.6±2.720.2±2.619.4±0.2.70.001
  • Mean and SD, or N and percent. Fatty acids are mol%.