Table 3

The predictive value of visual acuity at diabetes diagnosis and 6 years later for the secondary outcome: fractures/trauma

Period I (6 years)
From diabetes diagnosis to 6 years later
Period II (13 years)
From 6 to 19 years after diagnosis
nHR (95% CI)P valuenHR (95% CI)P value
Unadjusted11231.81 (1.48 to 2.22)<0.00017311.25 (1.04 to 1.49)0.015
Adjusted for:
  A11231.70 (1.34 to 2.16)<0.00017310.99 (0.76 to 1.27)0.91
  A+B9521.62 (1.23 to 2.13)0.00066130.91 (0.66 to 1.24)0.54
  A+C10651.67 (1.04 to 2.69)0.0336320.98 (0.75 to 1.29)0.91
  A+D11171.69 (1.30 to 2.18)<0.00017120.96 (0.74 to 1.25)0.78
  A+E10971.66 (1.27 to 2.17)0.00026940.90 (0.68 to 1.20)0.47
  A+F10831.69 (1.32 to 2.17)<0.00016670.96 (0.71 to 1.29)0.78
  A+G10011.92 (1.29 to 2.86)0.00136111.04 (0.71 to 1.51)0.84
  A+B+ D*9471.59 (1.18 to 2.15)0.00247310.99 (0.76 to 1.27)0.91
  • Values are numbers and HRs for a 1 unit increase in logMAR (the logarithmic value of visual acuity of the best seeing eye) from multivariable Cox regression models on time to death/event. Models were adjusted for groups of possible confounders: (A) background variables: sex and age; (B) sociodemographics: familial disposition to diabetes mellitus, living alone, education, and residence; (C) biochemical risk factors: diagnostic fasting plasma glucose (for period I), hba1c (for period II), total cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, urinary albumin, and serum creatinine; (D) clinical risk factors: height (in interaction with sex), weight (in interaction with sex), hypertension, and resting heart rate; (E) lifestyle variables: smoking, physical activity and trial arm; (F) chronic conditions: peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, and cancer (former or present); (G) eye pathologies: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, diabetic retinopathy, other retinopathy, and eye pressure.

  • *The combination of the groups of confounders presented in the final multivariable model was determined by sequential backward elimination of the groups for which the p value of the corresponding likelihood ratio test was higher than 0.05, until all remaining tests had p<0.05. Adjustments after backward elimination turned out to be the same for period I and period II.