Table 2

Age-adjusted differences between and within sexes in mean differences in levels of risk factors according to glucose metabolism status

Cardiometabolic risk factorsSex difference in mean differences (95% CI)Sex-specific mean differences (95% CI)
Women Men
Sex-specific mean differences (95% CI)
Women Men
Pre-diabetesType 2 diabetesPre-diabetesType 2 diabetes
BMI (kg/m2) n=34070.50 (−0.31 to 1.32)1.81·· (1.13 to 2.50)2.47 (1.84 to 3.09)1.96 (1.43 to 2.50)5.44 (4.88 to 6.00)3.63 (3.22 to 4.04)
Waist circumference (cm) n=34061.00 (−1.22 to 3.22)3.97·· (2.11 to 5.83)6.91 (5.28 to 8.55)5.92 (4.41 to 7.43)15.37 (13.90 to 16.84)11.40 (10.24 to 12.56)
HOMA2-S (%)* n=32120.95 (0.86 to 1.06)0.85·· (0.77 to 0.93)0.71 (0.66 to 0.76)0.74 (0.69 to 0.80)0.54 (0.51 to 0.58)0.64 (0.61 to 0.68)
Office SBP (mm Hg) n=34083.02· (−0.26 to 6.30)3.87·· (1.12 to 6.62)5.59 (3.26 to 7.92)2.57 (0.26 to 4.88)9.92 (7.82 to 12.02)6.05 (4.28 to 7.81)
Office DBP (mm Hg) n=34080.68 (−1.20 to 2.55)2.27·· (0.70 to 3.84)3.08 (1.75 to 4.41)2.40 (1.08 to 3.72)2.84 (1.64 to 4.04)0.57 (−0.44 to 1.58)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) n=34060.08 (−0.13 to 0.28)−0.02 (−0.19 to 0.15)−0.07 (−0.21 to 0.08)−0.14 (−0.28 to 0.00)−1.06 (−1.19 to −0.93)−1.04 (−1.15 to −0.93)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) n=34060.10·· (−0.18 to −0.02)0.11·· (−0.18 to −0.05)−0.20 (−0.26 to −0.13)−0.10 (−0.15 to −0.05)−0.40 (−0.46 to −0.34)−0.29 (−0.32 to −0.25)
Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio n=34060.22· (−0.01 to 0.44)0.17· (−0.02 to 0.35)0.37 (0.22 to 0.52)0.15 (−0.02 to 0.31)0.15 (0.01 to 0.28)−0.02 (−0.14 to 0.11)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) n=34060.14 (−0.05 to 0.32)0.06 (−0.09 to 0.22)−0.04 (−0.17 to 0.10)−0.17 (−0.30 to −0.05)−0.90 (−1.02 to −0.78)−0.97 (−1.06 to −0.87)
Triglycerides
(mmol/L)* n=3406
1.11·· (1.01 to 1.22)1.06 (0.98 to 1.14)1.35 (1.26 to 1.44)1.21 (1.14 to 1.30)1.45 (1.37 to 1.54)1.37 (1.31 to 1.45)
Markers of inflammation
Z-score (SD)*=3371
1.18· (0.98 to 1.41)1.18·· (1.02 to 1.38)1.63 (1.43 to 1.85)1.38 (1.22 to 1.57)2.31 (2.05 to 2.60)1.95 (1.77 to 2.15)
 Lifestyle risk factors
 Stepping minutes per day n=26075.00 (−3.77 to 13.77)−0.57 (−8.01 to 6.87)−5.13 (−11.00 to 0.73)−10.19 (−16.66 to −3.71)−26.08 (−31.47 to −20.68)−25.40 (−30.35 to −20.45)
Smoking status† n=3349
 Neverrefrefrefrefrefref
 Former0.69 (0.44 to 1.09)0.59·· (0.40 to 0.86)1.16 (0.85 to 1.59)1.68 (1.21 to 2.33)0.93 (0.70 to 1.24)1.58 (1.23 to 2.03)
 Current1.01 (0.52 to 1.96)0.86 (0.51 to 1.45)1.41 (0.89 to 2.24)1.40 (0.87 to 2.24)1.65 (1.11 to 2.46)1.92 (1.36 to 2.70)
Alcohol use† n=3343
 Nonerefrefrefrefrefref
 Low (w:≤7; m:≤14)0.72 (0.39 to 1.34)0.69 (0.44 to 1.09)0.61 (0.42 to 0.88)0.84 (0.51 to 1.39)0.23 (0.17 to 0.31)0.33 (0.24 to 0.46)
 High (w:>7; m:>14)0.60 (0.31 to 1.17)0.43·· (0.25 to 0.75)0.65 (0.44 to 0.97)1.09 (0.64 to 1.86)0.13 (0.09 to 0.20)0.31 (0.21 to 0.45)
Greek Mediterranean diet score†
n=3188
 Diet score 0–3refrefrefrefrefref
 Diet score 4–51.03 (0.63 to 1.71)0.84 (0.56 to 1.25)1.04 (0.73 to 1.47)1.01 (0.70 to 1.44)0.63 (0.47 to 0.86)0,75 (0.58 to 0.97)
 Diet score 6–90.68 (0.38 to 1.19)1.07 (0.66 to 1.74)0.67 (0.45 to 1.01)0.99 (0.67 to 1.47)0.41 (0.29 to 0.60)0.39 (0.28 to 0.53)
  • Differences between sexes are expressed as linear regression coefficients (95% CI) of the interaction terms sex*pre-diabetes and sex*type 2 diabetes, which indicate differences between women and men in mean differences in the levels of risk factors (dependent variable) according to glucose metabolism status. The reference category for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes is normal glucose metabolism status. *women to men ratio of geometric mean ratios. women to men ratio of odds ratios. Statistically significant differences between the sexes are typed in bold. ··P value <0.05 · P value <0.10.

  • Sex-specific differences are expressed as linear regression coefficients (95% CI) of the dependent variables, which indicate mean differences in levels of risk factors according to glucose metabolism status. The reference category for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes is normal glucose metabolism status. *geometric mean ratios. odds ratios.

  • All results presented are age-adjusted, including statistical interaction between sex and age.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HOMA2-S, homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity;ref, reference; SBP, systolic blood pressure.