Table 1

Cohort characteristics at baseline

All subjects
(N=330)
Case
(n=165)
Control
(n=165)
P value
Age, years62.7 (58.7–67.5)62.9 (59.0–67.3)62.5 (58.5–67.6)0.781†
Female, n (%)146 (44)73 (44)73 (44)1.000‡
Race
 Caucasian, n (%)219 (66)111 (67)108 (65)0.464
 Black, n (%)53 (16)27 (16)26 (16)
 Hispanic, n (%)22 (7)13 (8)9 (5)
 Other, n (%)36 (11)14 (8)22 (13)
BMI, kg/m232.2±5.332.0±5.332.3±5.40.551¶
Total cholesterol, mg/dL187±47191±50184±450.214¶
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL39 (34–47)38 (33–47)41 (36–49)0.043*
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL103 (81–127)106 (81–131)102 (81–125)0.356
Triglycerides, mg/dL163 (117–242)168 (127–261)159 (112–235)0.078
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg137±17139±18136±170.050¶
HbA1c, %8.2 (7.6–9.0)8.3 (7.6–9.2)8.1 (7.6–8.9)0.144
10-year ASCVD risk, %23.5 (15.3–32.1)23.4 (15.4–33.3)23.5 (13.5–30.1)0.038*
eGFR, mL/min88.4 (72.3–104.9)87.5 (71.8–104.5)88.9 (73.1–105.1)0.399
Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL165 (135–200)162 (132–201)169 (138–198)0.801
Smoking status
 Never, n (%)157 (48)80 (48)77 (47)0.855§
 Former, n (%)138 (42)69 (42)69 (42)
 Current, n (%)35 (11)16 (10)19 (12)
ACEI and/or ARB, n (%)226 (68)114 (69)112 (68)0.815‡
β-blocker, n (%)73 (22)38 (23)35 (21)0.892‡
Statin, n (%)187 (57)91 (55)96 (58)0.653‡
Antiplatelet, n (%)169 (51)83 (50)86 (52)0.740‡
  • Variables expressed as mean±SD, median (IQR), or n (%).

  • *P value <0.05 considered significant.

  • †Wilcoxon signed rank test.

  • ‡McNemar’s test.

  • §Marginal homogeneity test for paired subjects.

  • ¶Paired t-test.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.