Table 1

Baseline demographic, anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of PROMISE participants according to tertiles of ICAUC (n=492)

ICAUC tertilesP value
1 (Lowest)
[1.76–5.47]
2
[5.47–7.18]
3 (Highest)
[7.18–18.29]
Subjects, n164164164
Age (years)47.84 (10.04)50.13 (9.59)51.80 (9.61)0.001
Sex=male (%)49 (29.9)43 (26.2)41 (25.0)0.585
Ethnicity, n (%)<0.001
 European96 (59.1)116 (70.7)135 (82.3)
 Other67 (40.9)48 (29.3)29 (17.7)
Smoking status, n (%)0.392
 Current12 (7.5)6 (3.8)12 (7.4)
 Former68 (42.8)62 (38.8)60 (36.8)
 Never79 (49.7)92 (57.5)91 (55.8)
Physical activity (kcal/kg/week)15.45 [5.56, 40.86]22.96 [8.49, 73.47]27.40 [11.60, 69.24]0.007
BMI (kg/m2)32.54 (5.78)31.23 (6.59)29.22 (6.30)<0.001
BMI category, n (%)<0.001
 Normal9 (5.6)24 (15.0)40 (24.4)
 Overweight49 (30.6)50 (31.2)62 (37.8)
 Obese102 (63.7)86 (53.8)62 (37.8)
Waist circumference (cm)102.67 (14.74)98.39 (14.24)93.47 (15.82)<0.001
Waist:hip0.93 (0.07)0.91 (0.07)0.90 (0.08)<0.001
ICFASTING10.03 [8.49, 11.78]12.87 [11.32, 15.46]16.78 [13.88, 20.77]<0.001
ICAUC4.60 [3.97, 4.98]6.28 [5.81, 6.67]8.43 [7.77, 9.89]<0.001
Fasting C peptide (pmol/L)1021.50 [786.00, 1303.25]805.50 [633.75, 1006.25]661.50 [534.75, 863.25]<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.00 [4.60, 5.20]4.80 [4.60, 5.20]4.80 [4.50, 5.30]0.091
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)108.50 [77.75, 137.25]60.00 [45.75, 80.00]38.00 [27.00, 53.00]<0.001
2-hour C peptide (pmol/L)3340.00 [2515.00, 4264.50]2692.00 [2058.75, 3353.25]2256.50 [1850.75, 2960.75]<0.001
2-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.07 (1.33)5.58 (1.22)5.39 (1.50)<0.001
2-hour insulin (pmol/L)597.50 [418.50, 896.25]322.00 [231.00, 460.25]187.50 [135.00, 285.75]<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)91.11 (18.35)87.12 (16.68)86.43 (17.61)0.036
WCC (×109/L)6.29 (1.46)6.00 (1.58)5.60 (1.38)<0.001
ALT (U/L)29.50 [22.00, 39.75]27.00 [20.50, 33.00]25.00 [19.00, 31.00]<0.001
Glucose tolerance status, n (%)0.174
 NGT152 (92.5)159 (96.9)157 (95.6)
 Pre-diabetes12 (7.5)5 (3.1)7 (4.4)
  • Continuous values indicated as median [IQR] for non-normally distributed variables, otherwise presented as mean±SD. Categorical variables presented as number (percent). P values for continuous variables were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests for normally and non-normally distributed variables, respectively. P values for categorical variables were determined using χ2 tests and Fisher tests.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AUC, area under the curve; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IC, insulin clearance; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; PROMISE, Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation; WCC, white cell count.