Table 1

Characteristics of participants, by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome

OverallMetabolic syndrome at follow-upNo metabolic syndrome at follow-up (<3 CVD risk factors)P value
n22013486
Variables measured at baseline
 Age (years)Mean (SD)30.8 (5.9)32.0 (5.7)29.0 (5.7)<0.001
 BMI at booking (kg/m2)Mean (SD)34.2 (8.2)36.2 (7.3)32.2 (8.5)<0.001
 BMI categories at booking, n (%)Normal31 (14.5)7 (5.2)24 (27.9)<0.001
Overweight38 (17.8)17 (12.7)21 (24.4)
Obese96 (44.9)76 (56.7)26 (30.2)
Morbidly obese49 (22.9)34 (25.4)15 (17.4)
 HFDP type, n (%)DIP70 (31.8)18 (22.1)52 (38.8)0.01
GDM150 (68.2)67 (77.9)82 (61.2)
 Insulin treatment for HFDP, n (%)Yes52 (23.6)39 (29.1)13 (15.1)0.017
OGTT at HFDP diagnosis
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)Median (IQR)5.8 (5.1–6.7)6.1 (5.4–7.1)5.5 (4.9–6.3)<0.001
 1-hour blood glucose (mmol/L)Median (IQR)10.4 (9.2–11.6)10.6 (9.5–11.9)10.0 (8.7–11.2)0.006
 Insulin treatment for HFDP, n (%)Yes52 (23.6)39 (29.1)13 (15.1)0.017
 2-hour glucose (mmol/L)Median (IQR)9.0 (8.3–10.5)9.1 (8.4–1.0)8.8 (8.2–9.6)0.022
Variables measured at follow-up
 Follow-up time (years)Median (IQR)6.1 (2.8–11.0)5.6 (1.1–9.5)6.9 (4.8–12.8)0.002
 Education, n (%)Tertiary30 (13.6)9 (6.7)21 (24.4)0.001
Secondary and matric167 (75.9)109 (81.3)58 (67.4)
Primary23 (10.5)16 (11.9)7 (8.1)
 Employed, n (%)Yes108 (49.1)57 (42.5)51 (59.3)0.015
 Marital status, n (%)Married141 (64.1)86 (64.2)55 (64.0)0.832
 Family history, n (%)Diabetes169 (76.8)103 (76.9)66 (76.7)0.983
Hypertension156 (70.9)98 (73.1)58 (67.4)0.364
Stroke and heart attack96 (43.6)59 (44.0)37 (43.0)0.883
 Stopped drinking alcohol for health reasons, n (%)Yes14 (6.4)10 (7.5)4 (4.7)0.486
 Current smoker, n (%)Yes64 (29.1)37 (27.6)27 (31.4)0.547
 GPAQ total physical activity (min)Median (IQR)450 (110–1405)420 (177.5–1502.5)375 (90–1280)0.274
 Subsequent pregnancy, n (%)Yes58 (26.4)32 (23.9)26 (30.2)0.297
 Average breastfeeding length (months)Median (IQR)6 (1–18)8 (1–18)6 (1–12)0.332
 Follow-up BMI (kg/m2)Mean (SD)34.9 (8.7)36.8 (8.3)32.0 (8.6)<0.001
 Weight gain (kg)Median (IQR)2.0 (−4.6 to 9.0)1.5 (−7.0 to 9.0)3.3 (−3.1 to 7.9)0.511
 Follow-up BMI categories, n (%)Normal24 (10.9)6 (4.5)18 (20.9)<0.001
Overweight44 (20.0)21 (15.7)23 (26.7)
Obese104 (47.3)70 (52.2)34 (39.5)
Morbidly obese48 (21.8)37 (27.6)11 (12.8)
 Waist circumference (cm)Mean (SD)110.5 (17.6)115.6 (16.9)102.3 (15.6)<0.001
 Hip circumference (cm)Mean (SD)117.3 (16.1)119.3 (15.7)113.9 (16.4)0.008
 Self-reported comorbidities, n (%)Diabetes55 (25.0)45 (33.6)10 (11.6)<0.001
Hypertension44 (20.0)42 (31.3)2 (2.3)<0.001
Dyslipidemia24 (10.9)22 (16.4)2 (2.3)0.001
  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DIP, diabetes in pregnancy; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; GPAQ, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; HFDP, hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.