Table 2

Biomarkers for which differences in mean levels were found between patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN+, n=304; PROPANE study) and participants from the KORA F4 study without DSPN (DSPN−, n=158) and those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=354)

BiomarkersNGTDSPN−DSPN+P value*
 Oncostatin M4.83±0.625.06±0.634.35±0.75†‡4.9×10−25
 TNFSF10 (TRAIL)8.12±0.308.08±0.337.90±0.41†‡8.6×10−16
 TNFSF12 (TWEAK)9.45±0.299.30±0.329.06±0.35†‡2.7×10−42
 TNFSF14 (LIGHT)5.61±0.535.65±0.554.90±0.77†‡2.2×10−40
 CCL4 (MIP-1β)8.18±0.578.36±0.647.93±0.68†‡8.4×10−14
 CCL8 (MCP-2)9.50±0.779.47±0.729.21±0.77†‡3.0×10−8
 CCL20 (MIP-3α)4.91±1.185.24±1.115.79±1.23†‡5.0×10−25
 CCL28 (MEC)1.56±0.381.57±0.441.29±0.34†‡2.4×10−21
 CXCL1 (MGSA-α)9.42±0.489.49±0.479.27±0.65†‡3.3×10−5
 CXCL11 (I-TAC)7.89±0.787.99±0.617.46±0.78†‡6.4×10−18
Growth factors
 Neurotrophin-31.03±0.341.00±0.330.87 ± 0.40†‡6.4×10−13
 TNFRSF5 (CD40)10.25±0.3310.30±0.4310.15±0.46†‡5.1×10−7
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD (the unit is normalized protein expression (NPX) which is comparable in its distribution to log2-transformed protein concentration).

  • *Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction (p<2.35×10−4).

  • †P<0.05 versus NGT group.

  • ‡P<0.05 versus DSPN− group after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, and smoking (NGT vs DSPN groups) or sex, age, BMI, HbA1c, smoking, and diabetes duration (DSPN− vs DSPN+).

  • CCL, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CD, cluster of differentiation; CXCL, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; DNER, delta and Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; I-TAC, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant; KORA, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg; LAP-TGFβ1, latency-associated peptide transforming growth factor beta 1; LIGHT, homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for binding to herpesvirus entry mediator, a receptor expressed on T lymphocytes; MCP-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 2; MEC, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine; MGSA-α, melanoma growth-stimulating activity alpha; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; MMP1, matrix metalloproteinase-1; PROPANE, Probing the Role of Sodium Channels in Painful Neuropathy Study; TGF-α, transforming growth factor alpha; TNFRSF5, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 5; TNFSF12, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 12; TNFSF14, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14; TRAIL, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; TWEAK, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis.