Table 2

Demographic characteristics and clinical laboratory tests by tertiles of activin A in the combined cohorts with diabetes

Activin AOverall cohort (n=206)
Low tertile
(n=68)
Medium tertile
(n=71)
High tertile
(n=67)
P value
Activin A, pg/mL254.8 (44.44)372.4 (41.31)632.3 (144.98)<0.0001*
eGFR calculations
 CKD-EPI eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m278.7 (24.27)58.7 (25.31)36.9 (17.44)<0.0001*
 MDRD eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m277.9 (25.97)60.0 (28.89)37.6 (16.61)<0.0001*
Demographics
 Age, years61.0 (11.06)68.3 (10.08)69.1 (11.55)<0.0001*
 Female sex17 (25.0%)21 (29.6%)22 (32.8%)0.6†
 White race63 (92.6%)68 (95.8%)62 (92.5%)0.7†
 BMI, kg/m230.8 (5.31)31.7 (5.71)33.2 (6.14)0.02*
Clinical laboratory measurements
 Hemoglobin, g/L139.80 (12.96)131.30 (17.63)124.90 (16.12)<0.0001*
 Hemoglobin A1c, %7.7 (1.31)7.6 (1.45)7.9 (1.44)0.1*
 Leuocytes, 109/L7.5 (2.47)7.5 (1.68)7.6 (2.64)0.9*
 Sodium, mmol/L139.0 (2.70)139.6 (2.72)139.9 (3.10)0.1*
 Potassium, mmol/L4.5 (0.41)4.7 (0.51)4.8 (0.49)0.0002*
 Phosphorus, mg/dL3.2 (0.49)3.2 (0.60)3.7 (0.71)<0.0001*
 Albumin, g/dL4.6 (0.27)4.4 (0.23)4.2 (0.35)<0.0001*
 BUN, mg/dL18.2 (7.86)25.6 (11.34)36.4 (16.51)<0.0001*
 Creatinine, mg/dL1.0 (0.37)1.3 (0.57)2.0 (0.81)<0.0001*
 PTH, pg/mL35.0 (20.89)47.8 (33.76)89.6 (58.84)<0.0001*
 UACR, mg/g39.0 (88.56)193.9 (464.59)812.9 (1221.48)<0.0001*
 Log UACR2.6 (1.29)3.6 (1.88)5.1 (2.21)<0.0001*
 CRP, mg/L3.6 (4.35)4.3 (6.61)3.6 (5.42)0.5*
 Log CRP0.4 (2.31)−0.0 (3.22)−1.7 (4.69)0.5*
  • UACR (cohorts n=68, 69, 65). NGSP hemoglobin A1c converter http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp may be used to calculate hemoglobin A1c values from % to mmol/mol. Values represent mean (SD) or number (%).

  • P-values with bold font represent statistically significant values (<0.05).

  • *Kruskal-Wallis p value.

  • †χ2 p value.

  • BMI, body mass index; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CRP, C reactive protein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MDRD, modification of diet renal disease; PTH, parathyroid hormone; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio.