Table 1

Number of events and adjusted HRs (95% CI) for MPR as a continuous measure (MPR 18 months) per one unit increase and for high refill adherence (MPR>80%) with MPR>80% compared with MPR≤80% and discontinuers* compared with continuers after 18 months

EventNumber of events (n)ExposureHR (95% CI)P value
Nonfatal CVD637MPR 18 months0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.0001
MPR>80 %0.78 (0.65 to 0.93)0.005
Discontinuation 18 months1.43 (1.18 to 1.73)0.0003
Nonfatal/fatal CVD695MPR 18 months0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.0001
MPR>80%0.79 (0.66 to 0.94)0.01
Discontinuation 18 months1.47 (1.21 to 1.78)0.0001
CVD death58MPR 18 months1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.23
MPR>80 %1.96 (0.96 to 4.01)0.06
Discontinuation 18 months0.88 (0.41 to 1.89)0.74
Total death302MPR 18 months1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.74
MPR>80 %0.91 (0.71 to 1.18)0.49
Discontinuation 18 months1.17 (0.85 to 1.60)0.33
  • Adjusted for age, gender, diabetes duration, BMI, smoking, physical activity, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, albuminuria, eGFR, use of insulin pump, antihypertensive treatment, previous CVD (including coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention and endovascular grafting), atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cancer and socioeconomic status (income, marital status, education and country of origin as presented in table 2). Analyses were based on 10 imputations.

  • *Discontinuation (ie, nonpersistence) defined as being without medicines on hand for >180 days.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MPR, medication possession ratio.