Table 2

Body weight, HbA1c and insulin usage outcomes

InterventionControlIntervention effectP value
Estimate (95% CI)
Weight (kg)
 Baseline104.0±20.2103.1±18.9
 Mean change at 12 months−9.8±4.9−5.6±6.1−4.3 (−6.3 to −2.3)<0.001
HbA1c (%)
 Baseline8.75±1.749.32±1.71
 Mean change at 12 months−0.43±1.01−0.09±1.64−0.56 (−1.17 to 0.05)0.07
HbA1c (mmol/mol)
 Baseline72.2±19.078.4±18.7
 Mean change at 12 months−4.7±11.1−1.0±17.9−6.1 (−12.8 to 0.5)0.07
Insulin dose (U)
 Baseline73.1±41.379.4±61.0
 Mean change at 12 months−47.3±36.4−33.3±52.9−18.6 (−29.2 to −7.9)0.001
Insulin dose (U/kg)
 Baseline0.72±0.420.75±0.51
 Mean change at 12 months−0.45±0.36−0.29±0.50−0.16 (−0.26 to −0.06)0.002
Stopping insulin (n/(%))
 Baseline45 (100)45 (100)
 Change at 12 months13 (29)3 (7)0.001
  • Data presented as mean±SD.

  • Nephropathy defined as having estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤60 mL/min/1.73m2.

  • HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin.