Table 2

Relation between glucose parameters from blood samples collected at hospital and UMI levels from self-collected urine samples at home

Dependent variablesIndependent variablesNon-standardized β
(95% CI)
Standardized βP value
75gOGTT
Fasting plasma glucose
ln UMIwake-up18.5 (9.5 to 27.4)0.36<0.0001*
ln UMIpremeal16.3 (7.2 to 25.4)0.300.0006*
ln UMI2h-postprandial21.9 (14.0 to 29.8)0.44<0.0001*
ln Δ UMI4.9 (1.2 to 8.6)0.240.0097*
75gOGTT
1-hour plasma glucose
ln UMIwake-up54.0 (24.9 to 83.1)0.290.0004*
ln UMIpremeal48.5 (18.1 to 78.8)0.250.0020*
ln UMI2h-postprandial73.8 (47.9 to 99.7)0.41<0.0001*
ln Δ UMI12.5 (0.9 to 24.0)0.180.0347
75gOGTT
2-hour plasma glucose
ln UMIwake-up37.4 (3.7 to 71.0)0.190.0298
ln UMIpremeal33.3 (0.2 to 66.3)0.170.0488
ln UMI2h-postprandial72.5 (44.5 to 100.6)0.40<0.0001*
ln Δ UMI17.8 (5.3 to 30.2)0.250.0058*
75gOGTT
AUC02h glucose
ln UMIwake-up81.9 (37.2 to 126.7)0.290.0005*
ln UMIpremeal73.3 (27.4 to 119.2)0.240.0020*
ln UMI2h-postprandial121.0 (82.9 to 159.1)0.44<0.0001*
ln Δ UMI23.8 (6.1 to 41.5)0.220.0089*
HbA1cln UMIwake-up0.33 (0.06 to 0.59)0.200.0152
ln UMIpremeal0.32 (0.06 to 0.59)0.190.0165
ln UMI2h-postprandial0.55 (0.33 to 0.78)0.36<0.0001*
ln Δ UMI0.13 (0.03 to 0.23)0.210.0133
  • Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and serum creatinine. Dependent variables: fasting plasma glucose, 1-hour post-75gOGTT plasma glucose, 2-hour post-75gOGTT plasma glucose, AUC0–2h glucose of 75gOGTT, and HbA1c. Independent variables: the logarithm of UMIwake-up, UMI at wake-up time (fasting first urine); UMIpremeal, UMI at premeal (fasting second urine); and UMI2h-postprandial, UMI at 2-hour postprandial. ΔUMI was defined by 2-hour postprandial UMI minus premeal UMI.

  • *P values remained significant after Bonferroni’s correction.

  • AUC, area under the curve; BMI, body mass index; 75gOGTT, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test; UMI, urinary myoinositol.