Table 1

Characteristics of participants in the study 2

NGTIGTT2DMP value
Age, years47.4±12.065.4±9.463.9±9.9<0.0001
Gender, n (male/female)63 (15/48)29 (9/20)23 (12/11)0.0427
BMI, kg/m223.4±4.024.2±3.524.5±3.00.3837
FPG, mmol/L (mg/dL)5.0±0.4 (90±6.7) 5.6±0.7 (101±11.9)*** 6.6±1.1 (118±21.2)***<0.0001
2-hour PG, mmol/L (mg/dL)5.5±1.0 (99±18.0) 8.9±1.0 (161±17.6)*** 12.9±2.9 (233±51.4)***<0.0001
FIRI, pmol/L (µIU/mL)37.5±17.4 (5.4±2.5)46.5±32.0 (6.7±4.6)46.5±29.1 (6.7±4.2)0.1412
HbA1c, mmol/mol (%)31.2±3.7 (5.0±0.3) 36.0±3.9 (5.4±0.4)*** 40.6±4.6 (5.9±0.4)***<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L (mg/dL)5.3±1.1 (203±40.9)5.2±0.9 (200±34.8)5.3±1.4 (203±53.3)0.92
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L (mg/dL)1.7±0.5 (66±21.0)1.4±0.4 (54±14.8)*1.4±0.4 (52±14.8)**0.0018
eGFR, ml/min/1.73m283.0±20.1 74.0±16.9* 68.7±15.6**0.0005
  • The values were presented as mean±SD or n.

  • *P<0.05; versus NGT, **p<0.01; versus NGT, and ***p<0.001; versus NGT.

  • BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FIRI, fasting immunoreactive insulin; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; PG, plasma glucose; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.