Table 3

Sex-specific fully adjusted associations of continuous measures of maternal glucose during pregnancy with adiposity outcomes among children at follow-up

OutcomeBoysGirlsInteraction term
P value‡
(95% CI)P value*(95% CI)P value†
BMI Z-score β (95% CI)
 Fasting plasma glucose0.06 (−0.05 to 0.17)0.310.02 (−0.07 to 0.11)0.630.39
 1-hour plasma glucose0.02 (−0.005 to 0.05)0.110.02 (0.004 to 0.04)0.020.57
 2-hour plasma glucose−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.002)0.07−0.014 (−0.015 to 0.04)0.340.10
Overweight/obese OR (95% CI)
 Fasting plasma glucose1.14 (0.86 to 1.51)0.361.10 (0.75 to 1.60)0.240.55
 1-hour plasma glucose1.07 (0.99 to 1.16)0.071.17 (1.03 to 1.17)0.006**0.73
 2-hour plasma glucose0.96 (0.88 to 1.05)0.351.13 (1.00 to 1.27)0.045*0.14
  • Models are adjusted for maternal age, education, offspring sex, infant feeding, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, birth weight, and insulin therapy.

  • *P value for boys only; *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †P value for girls only; *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • ‡P value for sex * maternal predictor interaction term including boys and girls; *p<0.05.

  • BMI, body mass index.