Table 2

Associations of continuous measures of maternal glucose during pregnancy with adiposity outcomes among children at follow-up

OutcomeBMI Z-scoreOverweight/obese
β (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Fasting plasma glucose
 Model 10.15 (0.08 to 0.22)<0.0001***1.41 (1.14 to 1.75)0.0019**
 Model 20.06 (−0.02 to 0.13)0.141.12 (0.90 to 1.40)0.30
 Model 30.05 (−0.02 to 0.12)0.191.12 (0.89 to 1.40)0.32
 Model 40.05 (−0.02 to 0.12)0.191.13 (0.90 to 1.42)0.29
1-hour plasma glucose
 Model 10.04 (0.02 to 0.06)<0.0001***1.14 (1.08 to 1.21)<0.0001***
 Model 20.02 (0.003 to 0.04)0.02*1.10 (1.10 to 1.17)0.002***
 Model 30.02 (0.004 to 0.04)0.02*1.10 (1.03 to 1.17)0.002***
 Model 40.02 (0.00 to 0.04)0.01*1.12 (1.04 to 1.22)0.003***
2-hour plasma glucose
 Model 10.041 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.721.06 (0.99 to 1.13)0.11
 Model 2−0.008 (−0.03 to 0.02)0.491.03 (0.60 to 1.10)0.43
 Model 3−0.008 (−0.03 to 0.01)0.471.02 (0.96 to 1.10)0.50
 Model 4−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)0.431.04 (0.95 to 1.14)0.41
  • Model 1: adjusted for maternal age, education, offspring sex, and infant feeding.

  • Model 2: adjusted for covariates in model 1+maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  • Model 3: adjusted for covariates in model 2+birth weight.

  • Model 4: adjusted for covariates in model 3+insulin therapy.

  • *P< 0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • BMI, body mass index.