Table 1

Study population

Total
(n=194 157)
Age (years), mean (SD)66.2 (11.7)
Gender, n (%)
 Female98 882 (50.9)
 Male95 275 (49.1)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White113 645 (58.5)
 Black31 859 (16.4)
 Hispanic28 985 (14.9)
 Asian11 300 (5.8)
 Other/unknown8368 (4.3)
Household income, n (%)
 <$40 00059 181 (30.5)
 $40 000–$49 99918 884 (9.7)
 $50 000–$59 99916 828 (8.7)
 $60 000–$74 99920 601 (10.6)
 $75 000–$99 99925 455 (13.1)
 ≥$100 00040 098 (20.7)
 Unknown13 110 (6.8)
Charlson index, mean (SD)3.0 (2.3)
Comorbidity count,* mean (SD)2.1 (1.5)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Dementia5184 (2.7)
 End-stage renal disease2783 (1.4)
 Chronic kidney disease (stages 3–4)22 115 (11.4)
 Myocardial infarction7353 (3.8)
 Heart failure18 436 (9.5)
 Cerebrovascular disease23 175 (11.9)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease26 165 (13.5)
 Cancer18 438 (9.5)
 Cirrhosis1764 (0.9)
 Retinopathy3880 (2.0)
 Neuropathy45 910 (23.6)
 Hypertension163 653 (84.3)
 Arthritis42 010 (21.6)
 Urinary incontinence7073 (3.6)
 Depression20 295 (10.5)
 Falls6352 (3.3)
HbA1c, mean (SD)7.2 (1.5)
HbA1c range, n (%)
 ≤5.6%9960 (5.1)
 5.7%–6.4%57 246 (29.5)
 6.5%–6.9%39 624 (20.4)
 7.0%–7.9%46 014 (23.7)
 8.0%–8.9%20 054 (10.3)
 9.0%–9.9%9663 (5.0)
 ≥10.0%11 596 (6.0)
  • Patient characteristics ascertained at the time of the index glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) date.

  • *Comorbidity count was ascertained from among the 16 chronic health conditions specified by clinical practice guidelines as warranting pursuit of more relaxed treatment targets.