Table 2

Glycemic control as a function of age, multimorbidity, and glucose-lowering treatment regimen

Number (%) of patients
(Population n=194 157)
HbA1c (%)
Mean (SD)
Glucose-lowering treatment regimen
 Sulfonylurea (no insulin)49 200 (25.3)7.41 (1.39)
 Basal insulin (no sulfonylurea)9782 (5.0)7.89 (1.74)
 Basal insulin+sulfonylurea9311 (4.8)8.38 (1.72)
 Bolus±basal insulin (no sulfonylurea)18 470 (9.5)8.24 (1.77)
 Bolus±basal insulin+sulfonylurea7013 (3.6)8.54 (1.82)
 Other meds only61 917 (31.9)6.74 (1.04)
 No fills38 464 (19.8)6.50 (1.02)
Age (years)
 18–449638 (5.0)7.71 (2.01)
 45–6463 055 (32.5)7.49 (1.71)
 65–7474 418 (38.3)7.08 (1.30)
 ≥7547 046 (24.2)6.92 (1.15)
Type and degree of multimorbidity
 No comorbidities16 562 (8.5)7.41 (1.72)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index
 0–169 427 (35.8)7.23 (1.53)
 225 565 (13.2)7.10 (1.43)
 334 051 (17.5)7.26 (1.49)
 ≥465 114 (33.5)7.19 (1.43)
 Concordant comorbidities* only87 699 (45.2)7.30 (1.49)
 156 693 (64.6)7.27 (1.49)
 222 293 (25.4)7.31 (1.50)
 ≥38713 (9.9)7.40 (1.50)
 Discordant comorbidities† only5202 (2.7)7.06 (1.53)
 14319 (83.0)7.10 (1.56)
 2786 (15.1)6.86 (1.37)
 ≥397 (1.9)6.62 (1.16)
 Concordant and discordant comorbidities59 384 (30.6)7.12 (1.42)
 222 674 (38.2)7.07 (1.37)
 ≥336 710 (61.8)7.15 (1.45)
 Advanced‡±concordant/discordant comorbidities25 310 (13.0)7.00 (1.32)
 1971 (3.8)7.09 (1.48)
 25794 (22.9)6.98 (1.27)
 ≥318 545 (73.3)7.00 (1.33)
  • The mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels achieved by the study population as a function of age, comorbidity profile, and glucose-lowering treatment regimen.

  • *Concordant comorbidities included stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, proliferative retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy.

  • †Discordant comorbidities included cirrhosis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, urinary incontinence, falls, and arthritis.

  • ‡Advanced comorbidities included dementia, end-stage kidney disease, and cancer.