Table 3

Results of multiple linear regression analysis for variables associated with longitudinal brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity during 5-year follow-up

VariableComparisonAdjusted ORs (95% CI)P value
Intercept213 (−281 to 706)0.40
Time (years)1 year23.3 (20.2 to 26.4)<0.0001
Age (years)1 year13.4 (10.9 to 15.9)<0.0001
GenderMale vs female4.2 (−41.2 to 49.5)0.86
Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire scoreNeither type vs evening type19.5 (−23.3 to 62.3)0.37
Morning type vs evening type19.2 (−39.9 to 78.4)0.52
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scoreAverage vs good32.5 (−9.2 to 74.3)0.13
Poor vs good42.7 (−21.2 to 106.5)0.19
Sleep durationIntermediate vs short−2.06 (−51.8 to 47.7)0.93
Long vs short−7.65 (−104.1 to 88.8)0.88
Beck Depression Inventory-II score1 point−1.85 (−4.25 to 0.55)0.13
Caloric intake1 kcal/day−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.01)0.22
Physical activity1 METs·h/week−0.11 (−0.34 to 0.13)0.36
Alcohol consumption1 g/day0.24 (−0.70 to 1.17)0.62
Current smokerFormer smoker vs current smoker−8.19 (−55.8 to 39.4)0.74
Former smoker vs
Never-smoker
−5.97 (−53.2 to 41.2)0.80
Frequency of breakfast intakeOne time a week−25.5 (−39.5 to −11.5)0.0004
Time of dinner1 hour−7.56 (−24.1 to 8.9)0.37
Excessive daytime sleepinessYes vs no−13.8 (−51.3 to 23.7)0.47
Shift workerYes vs no38.1 (−18.0 to 94.2)0.18
Estimated duration of diabetes1 year3.59 (1.02 to 6.15)0.006
Body mass index1 kg/m2−14.3 (−19.4 to −9.16)<0.0001
Systolic BP1 mm Hg5.35 (4.09 to 6.62)<0.0001
HbA1c1 mmol/mol1.26 (−0.51 to 3.03)0.16
Total cholesterol1 mg/dL0.23 (−0.50 to 0.96)0.54
HDL cholesterol1 mg/dL−0.89 (−2.51 to 0.73)0.28
Triglyceride: log-transformed value1 unit56.0 (13.9 to 98.0)0.009
eGFR1 mL/min/1.73 m21.08 (−0.04. 2.19)0.06
Uric acid (mg/dL)1 mg/dL25.8 (−9.27 to 42.3)0.002
Diabetic retinopathyYes vs no20.1 (−16.8 to 56.9)0.29
Diabetic nephropathyMacroalbuminuria vs normoalbuminuria25.5 (−20.2 to 71.3)0.27
Microalbuminuria vs normoalbuminuria100.6 (5.2 to 196.0)0.04
Diabetic neuropathyYes vs no−26.1 (−65.3 to 13.1)0.19
Insulin therapyYes vs no3.03 (−56.5 to 62.6)0.92
Antihypertension drugsYes vs no−3.76 (−39.5 to 32.0)0.84
Antihyperlipidemia drugsYes vs no−25.7 (−61.0 to 9.7)0.16
Antiplatelet drugsYes vs no127.2 (33.8 to 220.7)0.008
Sleep apnea syndromeYes vs no1.68 (−97.3 to 100.6)0.97
  • Longitudinal brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model using time, lifestyle habits and possible atherosclerotic risk factors at baseline as fixed effects, and patient as a random effect.

  • BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.