Table 1

Characteristics of patients at the beginning of hospitalization

Radio calisthenics (−)Radio calisthenics (+)P value
Total number2715
Male13 (48.1)11 (73.3)0.11
Age (years)65.8±12.662.9±14.50.50
Weight (kg)64.1±16.370.8±19.40.24
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.6±4.826.4±7.90.37
Diabetes duration (years)14.5±9.012.2±8.50.44
HbA1c (%)9.3±1.810.2±1.20.10
HbA1c (mmol/mol)77.8±19.487.8±13.10.10
FBS (mg/dL)167.7±51.5156.3±32.30.44
C-peptide (nmol/L)1.4±0.81.7±1.40.29
Creatinine (mg/dL)0.73±0.20.77±0.20.63
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)77.8±23.580.5±27.20.74
SMI (kg/m2)6.8±1.17.1±1.40.92
Weight-adjusted SMI0.587±0.0800.572±0.0960.61
Lean body mass (kg)23.3±5.325.2±6.80.32
Right arm (kg)2.3±0.62.4±0.90.51
Left arm (kg)2.2±0.62.4±0.90.40
Trunk (kg)19.4±4.120.6±5.40.42
Right leg (kg)6.6±1.67.3±2.10.26
Left leg (kg)6.6±1.67.3±2.00.20
Body fat mass (kg)20.4±9.923.7±13.30.38
Drinking habits13 (48.1)2 (13.3)0.96
Smoking states0.96
 ‌‍Ex-smoker9 (33.3)6 (40)
 Current smoker7 (25.9)2 (13.3)
Exercise habits5 (18.5)2 (13.3)0.65
Insulin treatments8 (29.6)4 (26.7)0.35
Retinopathy (NDR/SDR/PDR)19 (70.4)/5 (18.5)/3 (11.1)8 (53.3)/3 (20.0)/4 (13.7)0.20
Nephropathy (normo/micro/macroalbuminuria)12 (44.4)/12 (44.4)/3 (11.1)10 (66.7)/2 (13.3)/3 (20)0.12
Neuropathy12 (44.4)/13 (48.1)6 (40)/9 (60)0.62
  • Data are expressed as n (%) or mean±SD. Weight-adjusted SMI was defined as dividing skeletal muscle mass by the body weight. P values by Welch’s t-test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBS, fasting blood sugar; NDR, no diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; SDR, simple diabetic retinopathy; SMI, skeletal muscle mass index.