Table 1

Patient demographic and background characteristics during the study period

BaselineYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5P value
Age (years)57.8±8.5 (n=734)
Male gender (%)463 (63)
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.6±4.0 (n=729)24.5±4.0 (n=724)24.4±4.0 (n=676)24.3±3.9 (n=671)24.3±3.9 (n=660)24.2±3.8 (n=629)<0.001
Estimated duration of diabetes (years)9.9±7.2 (n=726)
Diabetic retinopathy267 (36.8)
Diabetic neuropathy
Normoalbuminuria/microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria
572 (79.2)/124 (17.2)/23 (3.6)
Diabetic neuropathy193 (26.5)
Systolic BP (mm Hg)127±14 (n=729)128±14 (n=724)128±15 (n=676)129±14 (n=671)130±15 (n=660)129±14 (n=633)<0.001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)77±10 (n=729)79±11 (n=724)79±11 (n=676)78±10 (n=671)79±10 (n=660)78±10 (n=633)<0.001
HbA1c (%)7.0±1.0 (n=727)7.0±1.1 (n=718)7.0±1.1 (n=678)7.0±1.1 (n=660)7.0±1.0 (n=646)7.1±1.0 (n=635)0.029
HbA1c (mmol/mol)52.6±10.9 (n=727)52.6±11.8 (n=718)53.2±11.5 (n=678)53.3±12.4 (n=660)53.2±11.9 (n=646)53.9±12.1 (n=635)0.029
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)185±28 (n=726)185±27 (n=713)185±29 (n=676)188±30 (n=654)184±28 (n=635)184±31 (n=627)0.009
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)59±14 (n=727)57±13 (n=713)57±13 (n=677)60±15 (n=660)59±14 (n=643)59±14 (n=635)<0.001
Triglyceride: log-transformed value (actual value, median (IQR) (mg/dL)4.66±0.56
(100 (70, 152)) (n=720)
4.63±0.55
(98 (71, 144)) (n=713)
4.61±0.54
(96
(70, 137)) (n=677)
4.69±0.58
(104 (74, 152)) (n=660)
4.65±0.56
(101 (72, 144)) (n=643)
4.66±0.56
100 (71, 142))
(n=635)
<0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL)5.5±1.2 (n=727)5.5±1.2 (n=714)5.5±1.3 (n=677)5.4±1.3 (n=660)5.5±1.3 (n=644)5.5±1.2 (n=633)0.76
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)78±18 (n=723)75±17 (n=701)73±18 (n=681)71±18 (n=656)69±19 (n=643)68±18 (n=630)<0.001
UAE: log-transformed value (actual value, median (IQR): mg/g creatinine)2.64±1.31
(10 (6, 23)) (n=722)
2.61±1.45
(10 (5, 24)) (n=702)
2.63±1.38
(10 (5, 25)) (n=651)
2.66±1.48
(10 (5, 26)) (n=645)
2.63±1.43
(10 (5, 29)) (n=623)
2.65±1.46
(10 (5, 26)) (n=613)
0.23
Insulin therapy (n/%)80 (11)
Hypotensive drugs (n/%)348 (47.7)
Lipid-lowering drugs (n/%)444 (60.9)
Antiplatelet agents (n/%)24 (3.3)
Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire score57.4±7.3 (n=732)57.6±6.9 (n=672)58.5±7.0 (n=597)<0.001
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score5.1±3.0 (n=733)5.3±3.0 (n=669)5.4±3.1 (n=600)0.044
Beck Depression Inventory-II score9.9±7.6 (n=734)
Caloric intake (kcal/day)1,719±585 (n=733)
Physical activity (METs·h/week)43.7±73.9 (n=732)
Sleep duration (hours)6.5±1.2 (n=733)6.5±1.1 (n=671)6.5±1.2 (n=601)0.15
Frequency of breakfast intake (times a week)6.6±1.3 (n=733)6.5±1.4 (n=668)6.6±1.3 (n=601)0.26
Current smoker (yes)177 (24.1)
Alcohol consumption (g/day)12.4±21.6 (n=733)
baPWV (cm/s)1545±280 (n=726)1578±290 (n=668)1656±315 (n=601)<0.001
  • Data are mean±SD, median (IQR) or number of patients. P values are derived using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures.

  • baPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; UAE, urinary albumin excretion.