Table 2

Characteristics of 73 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and detectable C peptide with at least 10 years of follow-up

Ultrasensitive C peptide (pmol/L)
N=73
C peptide detectable
28
C peptide not detectable
45
P value
At diagnosis
 Male/female11/17 (39%/61%)29/16 (64%/36%)0.036*
 Age (years)5.2±3.15.0±2.90.753
 BMI SDS−0.44±1.4−1.01±1.40.086
 Hemoglobin A1c % (mmol/mol)9.4±4.0 (79±20)9.4±3.7 (79±17)0.917
 Ketoacidosis (pH <7.30)1 (4%)5 (11%)0.244
Average hemoglobin A1c % (mmol/mol)
 First year6.1±2.6 (43±6)6.5±2.8 (49±8)0.003**
 Second year6.6±2.7 (49±7)7.0±2.8 (53±8)0.029*
 Third year6.8±2.8 (51±8)7.2±2.9 (56±9)0.026*
 Fourth year7.1±2.8 (54±8)7.5±3.0 (58±10)0.065
 Fifth year7.5±2.9 (58±9)7.5±3.1 (59±11)0.505
 Sixth year7.5±2.8 (59±8)7.7±3.1 (61±11)0.575
 Seventh year7.8±2.7 (62±7)7.7±2.9 (61±9)0.560
 Eighth year8.0±2.7 (64±7)7.7±2.9 (61±9)0.247
 Ninth year7.9±2.9 (63±9)7.8±2.9 (62±9)0.519
 Tenth year7.9±3.0 (63±10)8.1±2.9 (65±9)0.401
 Ten-year grand average7.4±2.6 (57±6)7.5±2.7 (58±7)0.260
 Grand average for the entire study period7.5±2.6 (58±6)7.6±2.7 (60±7)0.218
At long-term follow-up
 Age (years)16.4±3.217.2±3.30.331
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)11.8±2.012.7±2.60.098
 BMI SDS (n=50)0.90±0.750.28±1.170.043*
 Hemoglobin A1c % (mmol/mol)8.0±3.3 (64±13)8.1±2.9 (65±9)0.774
 Treatment with insulin pump11 (39%)21 (47%)0.537
 Celiac disease7 (25%)2 (4%)0.041*
 Hypothyreosis0 (0%)2 (4%)0.527
 Retinopathy4 (14%)14 (31%)0.105
 Creatinine (µmol/L)58±1262±120.077
 Blood glucose (mmol/L)10±611±50.460
 GADA detectable15 (54%)17 (38%)0.186
 IA-2A detectable10 (36%)13 (29%)0.542
 GADA and IA-2A detectable5 (18%)5 (11%)0.415
  • Values are given as mean±SD.

  • Significance of the difference between subjects with and without detectable C peptide (>1.17 pmol/L): *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • BMI SDS, body mass index SD score; GADA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; IA-2A, islet antigen-2 antibodies.