Table 1

Characteristics of 73 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes followed up for at least 10 years

Range
At diagnosis
 Male40 (55%)
 Age (years)5.1±3.00.6 to 12.5
 BMI SDS−0.81±1.44−4.17 to 2.57
 Blood glucose (mmol/L)25.1±8.77.9 to 58
 Hemoglobin A1c (%)9.4±3.86.0 to 13.6
 Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol)79±1842 to 125
 Ketoacidosis (pH <7.30)6 (8%)
 Intensive care7 (10%)
 Previously diagnosed celiac disease3 (4%)
 Previously diagnosed hypothyreosis1 (1%)
At 1-year follow-up
 Age (years)6.2±3.01.6 to 13.7
 Duration of diabetes (years)1.0±0.10.8 to 1.4
 BMI SDS0.60±1.1−2.35 to 2.71
 Hemoglobin A1c (%)6.6±2.95.3 to 9.8
 Hemoglobin (mmol/mol)49±934 to 84
 Celiac disease4 (5%)
 Hypothyreosis1 (1%)
 Insulin treatment
  Multiple injection therapy72 (99%)
  Insulin pump1 (1%)
 Daily insulin dose (U/kg)0.7±0.20.2 to 1.1
At long-term follow-up
 Age (years)16.9±3.310.6 to 24.0
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)12.3±2.410 to 20
 BMI SDS0.52±1.06−2.40 to 2.57
 Hemoglobin A1c (%)8.1±3.16.1 to 11.2
 Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol)65±1143 to 99
 Celiac disease9 (12%)
 Hypothyreosis2 (3%)
 Insulin treatment
  Multiple injection therapy41 (56%)
  Insulin pump32 (44%)
 Daily insulin dose (U/kg)0.9±0.30.5 to 1.7
 Retinopathy18 (25%)
 Creatinine (µmol/L)61±1237 to 96
 Blood glucose (mmol/L)10.6±5.42.8 to 21.9
 C peptide (pmol/L)1.17±5.311.17 to 22.7
 GADA detectable32 (44%)
 IA-2A detectable23 (32%)
 GADA and IA-2A antibodies detectable10 (14%)
  • Values are given as mean±SD (range).

  • BMI SDS, body mass index SD score; GADA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; IA-2A, islet antigen-2 antibodies.