Table 2

Events and incidence rate* (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus complications and mortality by ABI categories

0.4≤ABI<0.50.5≤ABI<0.70.7≤ABI<0.90.9≤ABI<1.11.1≤ABI<1.31.3≤ABI<3
Cardiovascular
 AMI811.6 (5.8 to 23.1)5210.2 (7.8 to 13.4)1486.1 (5.2 to 7.1)5354.5 (4.1 to 4.9)1914.1 (3.6 to 4.7)785.8 (4.7 to 7.3)
 Ischemic stroke1725.4 (15.8 to 40.9)9519.0 (15.6 to 23.3)29812.4 (11.1 to 13.9)10368.8 (8.3 to 9.3)3567.7 (7.0 to 8.6)14811.2 (9.6 to 13.2)
 MCE†2436.9 (24.8 to 55.1)13728.1 (23.7 to 33.2)42518.0 (16.3 to 19.8)151613.0 (12.3 to 13.7)53211.7 (10.7 to 12.7)21216.3 (14.3 to 18.7)
 Mortality‡4562.7 (46.8 to 83.9)23845.5 (40.1 to 51.7)67327.2 (25.2 to 29.3)238319.7 (18.9 to 20.5)72515.4 (14.3 to 16.6)39529.1 (26.3 to 32.1)
Microvascular complications
 Nephropathy3768.9 (50.0 to 95.2)21650.8 (44.5 to 58.1)73334.2 (31.8 to 36.8)282426.2 (25.3 to 27.2)103424.4 (22.9 to 25.9)36030.5 (27.5 to 33.8)
 Retinopathy1320.9 (12.1 to 36.0)7415.3 (12.2 to 19.2)2239.5 (8.3 to 10.8)7156.1 (5.7 to 6.6)2515.5 (4.9 to 6.2)1038.0 (6.6 to 9.6)
 Neuropathy34.3 (1.4 to 13.3)5611.2 (8.6 to 14.6)1556.4 (5.5 to 7.5)4143.5 (3.2 to 3.8)1593.4 (2.9 to 4.0)675.1 (4.0 to 6.4)
  • *Per 1000 person-years.

  • †A composite of AMI and ischemic stroke.

  • ‡All-cause mortality.

  • ABI, ankle–brachial index; AMI, acute myocardial infarction; MCE, major cardiovascular event; n, number of participants.