Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicLCHF
group
Usual care groupP value
n4975
Sex (female)31 (63%)42 (56%)0.42
Age (years)57.3 (10.2)63.1 (10.9)0.004
BMI (kg/m2)35.3 (7.4)33.7 (6.0)0.19
 25–29.9911 (22%)21 (28%)0.37
 30–39.9926 (53%)43 (57%)
 >4012 (24%)11 (15%)
Weight (kg)*99.7 (27.4)94.0 (20.4)0.17
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*125.1 (11.6)129.3 (17.3)0.14
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*75.1 (9.8)72.8 (12.3)0.27
A1C (%)*8.2 (1.5)7.9 (1.8)0.44
Fasting plasma glucose161.5 (56.2)159.3 (68.3)0.85
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)90.7 (28.4)97.2 (49.0)0.43
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)48.4 (13.8)50.3 (16.8)0.52
Triglycerides (mg/dL)169.8 (99.4)165.0 (98.2)0.80
ALT (U/L)33.3 (29.3)26.2 (21.1)0.14
Glucose-lowering medications
 Insulin, n (%)21 (42.9)36 (48)0.57
 Insulin dose (units)64.1 (151.5)34.7 (56.7)0.13
 Sulfonylurea, n (%)19 (39)24 (32)0.44
 DPP-4 inhibitor, n (%)17 (35)9 (12)0.002
 GLP-1 agonist, n (%)6 (12)4 (5)0.19
 SGLT-2 inhibitor, n (%)5 (10)0 (0)0.008
 Thiazolidenedione, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)
 Metformin, n (%)44 (90)47 (63)<0.001
Treatment category0.01
 Lifestyle only, n (%)1 (2.0)12 (16)
 Oral medications only, n (%)27 (55.1)26 (34.7)
 Oral medications+insulin, n (%)19 (38.8)26 (34.7)
 Insulin only, n (%)2 (4.1)10 (13.3)
  • *Mean and SD are displayed unless otherwise noted.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LCHF, low carbohydrate, high fat; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SGLT-2, sodium-glucose transporter-2.