Table 1

Characteristics of the study

Potential predictorOutcomeMissing values N (%)
Age (years)63.3±10.1
Male141 (82.5)
Body mass index (kg/m2)30.7±5.7
Smoking or history of smoking114 (66.7)2 (1.2)
>2 units alcohol intake per day20 (11.7)1 (0.6)
Living alone46 (26.9)
Education
 Low98 (56.1)
 Medium31 (18.1)
 High44 (25.7)
Employed37 (21.6)
Type of diabetes
 149 (28.7)
 2122 (71.3)
Years of diabetes17.3±13.52 (1.2)
Glycated hemoglobin (%)7.58±1.449 (5.3)
Months duration of previous ulcer8.7±13.37 (4.1)
Daily stride count3359±174915 (8.8)
Variation in daily stride count1194±71315 (8.8)
Adherence (%)72.8±24.320 (11.7)
Adherence (%) at home62.4±32.467 (60.8)
Adherence (%) away from home87.8±26.567 (60.8)
Previous ulcer location
 Hallux41 (24.0)
 2nd to 5th toe34 (19.9)
 Metatarsal heads91 (53.2)
 Midfoot5 (2.9)
History of amputation65 (38)
Foot deformity
 Absent6 (3.5)
 Mild55 (32.2)
 Moderate77 (45.0)
 Severe27 (15.8)
 Major amputation6 (3.5)
Minor lesions at entry60 (35.1)
Peripheral arterial disease4 (2.3)
 Grade 193 (54.4)
 Grade 274 (43.3)
Vibration perception threshold (Volt)47.5±8.2
Months between healing of previous ulcer and study entry5.0±5.58 (4.7)
Improved custom-made footwear85 (49.7)
Barefoot peak plantar pressure forefoot (kPa)1029±2574 (2.3)
Barefoot peak pressure at previous ulcer location (kPa)726±39624 (14.0)
In-shoe peak pressure forefoot (kPa)275±781 (0.6)
In-shoe peak pressure at previous ulcer location (kPa)186±9421 (12.3)
In-shoe peak pressure forefoot <200 kPa and adherence >80%6 (3.5)22 (12.9)
  • *Data are expressed as number (%) or mean±SD.