Table 1

Characteristics of the study sample and subgroups according to diabetes history or participation in a DSME program

VariablesParticipants without diabetesParticipants with diabetesp value*Never-DSME
Ever-DSME participantsp value†
N19 20493.3§13006.7§48437.3¶81662.7¶
Female10 61650.653342.620446.332940.4
Age (years)47.3±17.064.9±13.5<0.00167.4±13.163.5±13.5<0.001
SES score
((min) 3 to 21 (max))
Living together with spouse or as coupleYes13 03067.295171.60.00635069.460172.80.293
Limitation due to health problems for at least 6 monthsHigh8084.822518.4<0.0017516.315019.60.140
None15 47379.563347.724551.838845.4
Occupational statusEmployed person12 86967.140430.3<0.00113327.127132.20.365
Unemployed person4422.6262.592.4172.5
Self-efficacy beliefs (ASKU; min: 1 to max: 5)4.2±0.73.9±0.9<0.0013.9±1.04.0±0.90.009
How much participants generally pay attention to their health (min: 1 to max: 5)3.5±0.73.53±0.80.0103.5±0.83.6±0.80.303
Fruit intakeLess than daily10 29956.454042.3<0.00119542.434542.30.969
At least once daily890543.676057.728957.647157.7
Vegetable intakeLess than daily12 73968.981563.80.00129262.152364.80.414
At least once daily646531.148536.219237.929335.2
Walking (min/day)<3012 88467.284662.90.00932165.652561.40.236
Cycling (days/week)<112 89869.498077.4<0.00138582.959574.2<0.001
Doing sports (days/week)<1644236.364951.0<0.00125754.839248.80.116
≥210 19451.150737.317132.733640.1
Endurance training ≥150 min/week and strength training twice/weekYes468923.619313.5<0.0016010.213315.50.014
≥150 min. aerobic PA/week including walkingYes12 14961.265548.9<0.00122442.843152.50.013
≥150 min. aerobic PA/week without walkingYes939947.045533.2<0.00114827.230736.70.004
Tobacco useSmoker452625.321116.9<0.0017415.213717.90.013
Time since diabetes mellitus-diagnosis≤2 years23316.813124.110212.4<0.001
>2 years104483.234575.969987.6
  • This table shows absolute frequencies and estimated prevalences in per cent based on weight factors. The tests for significance take weight factors into account. N for time since diagnosis of diabetes mellitus varies from overall N for ever-DSME participants or never-DSME participants due to missing values for this variable. BMI was categorized according to WHO categorization as normal (<25 kg/m²), overweight (25-<30 kg/m²) and obese (≥30 kg/m²).16

  • *Indicates test for significance between participants with and without diabetes.

  • †Indicates test for significance between patients with diabetes with versus without DSME participation.

  • ‡We show unweighted absolute frequencies.

  • §Percentages are calculated with reference to overall cohort including weight factors except for variable N.

  • ¶Percentages are calculated with reference to ever-DSME participants or never-DSME participants, respectively. Calculation includes weight factors except for variable N.

  • ASKU, Index of self-efficacy; BMI, body mass index; diabetes, diabetes mellitus; DSME, diabetes self-management education; N, number; PA, physical activity; SES, socioeconomic status.