Table 2

Risk factors of DKD by category

VariablesLow eGFR group*Albuminuria group†Low eGFR and albuminuria group
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Sex (female)1.370.81 to 2.320.990.64 to 1.511.811.11 to 2.95
Age (by 10 years)2.692.03 to 3.581.181.00 to 1.401.771.41 to 2.21
BMI (by 5 kg/m²)1.310.95 to 1.811.220.97 to 1.531.250.94 to 1.66
Total cholesterol (by 10 mg/dL)0.910.83 to 0.9970.930.87 to 1.001.020.95 to 1.10
HDL cholesterol (by 10 mg/dL)0.990.81 to 1.211.020.88 to 1.180.950.79 to 1.13
Triglycerides (by 10 mg/dL)10.97 to 1.041.010.99 to 1.041.010.98 to 1.04
HbA1c‡ (%)1.050.81 to 1.361.291.11 to 1.510.780.60 to 1.004
Uric acid (mg/dL)1.831.48 to 2.271.130.96 to 1.322.041.68 to 2.48
SBP (by 10 mm Hg)1.321.17 to 1.481.21.05 to 1.38
DBP (by 10 mm Hg)1.060.83 to 1.34
Diabetic retinopathy (yes/no)1.230.72 to 2.102.171.46 to 3.213.832.44 to 6.03
  • Logistic regression analysis with each DKD group in contradistinction to no DKD group to find related risk factors.

  • *eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and normoalbuminuria (ACR <30 mg/gCr).

  • †ACR ≥30 mg/gCr and normal eGFR (≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2).

  • ‡NGSP, National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program.

  • ACR, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DKD, diabetic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure.