Table 2

Association between lifestyle variables and diabetes or ever-participation in DSME, respectively, estimated by logistic regression analyses

Participants with diabetes
(ref. participants without diabetes)
DSME-ever participants
(ref: DSME-never participants)
OR* (95% CI)*OR* (95% CI)*
Fruit intakeAt least once daily (ref: less than once daily)1.25 (1.08 to 1.45)†1.15 (0.87 to 1.53)†
Vegetable intakeAt least once daily (ref: less than once daily)1.13 (0.97 to 1.30)†0.97 (0.73 to 1.30)†
Physical activityWalking ≥30 min/day (ref:<30 min/day)1.01 (0.87 to 1.17)†1.19 (0.88 to 1.30)†
Cycling ≥1 day/week (ref:<1 day/week)0.70 (0.59 to 0.84)†1.62 (1.15 to 2.30)†
Doing sports in general ≥1 day/week
(ref:<1 day/week)
0.74 (0.63 to 0.86)†1.16 (0.86 to 1.57)†
Doing sports in general ≥2 day/week
(ref:<2 day/week)
0.71 (0.62 to 0.82)†1.25 (0.90 to 1.73)
Endurance training ≥150 min/week & strength training twice/week (ref: no)0.59 (0.49 to 0.72)†1.41 (0.95 to 2.08)†
≥150 min aerobic PA/week including walking
(ref.: less)
0.69 (0.60 to 0.80)†1.42 (1.03 to 1.94)†
≥150 min aerobic PA/week without walking
(ref: less)
0.65 (0.56 to 0.76)†1.48 (1.08 to 2.03)†
Tobacco useSmoking (ref. never-smoking)1.00 (0.81 to 1.23)‡1.32 (0.87 to 2.00)‡
Ex-smokers (ref. never-smokers)1.28 (1.09 to 1.50)‡1.39 (1.03 to 1.88)‡
BMIOverweight (ref. normal)2.09 (1.67 to 2.60)‡0.97 (0.65 to 1.45)‡
Obesity (ref. normal)4.92 (3.95 to 6.12)‡1.17 (0.79 to 1.74)‡
  • This table shows results of logistic regression analyses, dependent variables were lifestyle variables (fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity variables, smoking, BMI); DSME participation and diabetes as independent variables.

  • *All results are adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, living together in marriage/as an unmarried couple or alone, limitation due to health problems for at least 6 months, occupational status, AKSU Index of self-efficacy and attentiveness to own health. Age, socioeconomic status [3 to 21], self-efficacy [1 to 5] and how much participants pay attention to their health [1 to 5] were included as continuous variables in the model. Categorial variables included in the model were: Sex (male/female), limitation due health problems for at least 6 months (high limitation/moderate limitation/none), occupational status [employed/unemployed/ retired or unable to work], living situation (as married or unmarried couple/ living alone] and how much participants do generally pay attention to their health [not at all/not so much/moderate/much/very much).

  • †Results were calculated using weighted multinomial logistic regression analyses, BMI categorization was according to WHO categorization16 as normal (<25 kg/m²), overweight (25-<30 kg/m²) and obese (≥30 kg/m²).

  • ‡Results were calculated using binary weighted-logistic regression analyses.

  • BMI, body mass index; diabetes, diabetes mellitus; DSME, diabetes self-management education; PA, physical activity; SES, socioeconomic status.