Table 3

Association between lifestyle variables and ever-participation in DSME—subgroup analyses for participants with diabetes 2 years and less or more than 2 years after diagnosis, respectively, estimated by logistic regression analyses

Time after diagnosis ≤2 years N=233Time after diagnosis >2 years N=1044
Ever-DSME participants ref: never-DSME participantsEver-DSME participation ref. never-DSME participation
OR* (95% CI)*OR* (95% CI)*
Fruit intakeAt least once daily (ref: less than once daily)1.37 (0.72 to 2.59)†1.16 (0.83 to 1.62)†
Vegetable intakeAt least once daily
(ref: less than once daily)
1.07 (0.54 to 2.11)†0.99 (0.70 to 1.39)†
Physical activityWalking >30 min/day (ref:<30 min/day)1.08 (0.54 to 2.17)†1.30 (0.92 to 1.82)†
Cycling ≥1 day/week (ref:<1 day/week)2.55 (1.21 to 5.37)†1.52 (1.01 to 2.29)†
Doing sports in general ≥1 day/week (ref:<1 day/week)1.67 (0.84 to 3.35)†1.03 (0.73 to 1.45)†
Doing sports in general ≥2 day/week (ref:<2 day/week)1.49 (0.79 to 2.82)†1.20 (0.82 to 1.75)†
Endurance training ≥150 min/week & strength training twice/week (ref: no)0.58 (0.21 to 1.56)†1.50 (0.96 to 2.34)†
≥150 min aerobic PA/week including walking (ref: less)1.28 (0.66 to 2.48)†1.49 (1.04 to 2.12)†
≥150 min aerobic PA/week without walking (ref: less)1.23 (0.60 to 2.52)†1.46 (1.01 to 2.12)†
Tobacco useSmoking (ref. never-smoking)2.84 (0.92 to 8.79)‡1.26 (0.78 to 2.06)‡
Ex-smokers (ref. never-smokers)1.17 (0.59 to 2.32)‡1.71 (1.21 to 2.41)‡
BMIOverweight (ref. normal)1.04 (0.39 to 2.79)‡0.96 (0.61 to 1.51)‡
Obesity (ref. normal)1.61 (0.65 to 3.99)‡1.19 (0.76 to 1.85)‡
  • This table shows the results of logistic regression analyses. Dependent variables: lifestyle variables (fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity variables, smoking, BMI); DSME-participation and diabetes as independent variables stratified according to time after diabetes diagnosis until survey time into patients ≤2 years after diagnosis (≤2Y group) and >2 years (>2Y group) after diagnosis. In the ≤2Y group were n=102 ever-DSME participants and n=131 ever-DSME participants. In the >2 Y group were n=699 ever-DSME participants and n=345 never-DSME participants. All logistic regressions were calculated for each subgroup separately.

  • *All results are adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, living together in marriage/as an unmarried couple or alone, limitation health problems for at least 6 months, occupational status, AKSU Index of self-efficacy and attentiveness to own health. Age, socioeconomic status [3 to 21], self-efficacy [1 to 5] and how much participants pay attention to their health [1 to 5] were included as continuous variables in the model. Categorial variables included in the model were: Sex (male/female), limitation due to health problems for at least 6 months (high limitation/moderate limitation/ none), occupational status (employed/unemployed/retired or unable to work), living situation (as married or unmarried couple/living alone) and how much participants do generally pay attention to their health (not at all/not so much/moderate/much/very much). BMI categorization according to WHO categorization as normal (<25 kg/m²), overweight (25-<30 kg/m²) and obese (≥30 kg/m²).16

  • †Results were calculated using binary weighted-logistic regression analyses.

  • ‡Results were calculated using weighted multinomial logistic regression analyses. N of both subgroups=1277.

  • BMI, body mass index; DSME, diabetes self-management education program.