Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the patients with HNF1A-MODY and young patients with EOD in cohort 1

CharacteristicEOD (N=125)HNF1A-MODY (N=15)P value
Sex, male/female91/348/70.138
Age, mean (SD), years32.4 (6.6)29.4 (9.3)0.120
Age at diagnosis, mean (SD), years29.7 (6.0)25.3 (7.5)0.010*
Duration of DM, median (IQR), years1.0 (0.1 to 5.0)3.0 (1.0 to 6.0)0.083
Family history of DM, n (%)105 (84.0)14 (93.3)0.469
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m228.1 (4.1)23.0 (4.0)<0.0001***
SBP, mean (SD), mm Hg125.2 (13.9)122.2 (14.3)0.433
DBP, mean (SD), mm Hg78.8 (11.2)76.6 (10.2)0.474
FPG, median (IQR), mmol/L7.32 (6.16 to 9.75)7.20 (5.10 to 7.83)0.222
HbA1c, median (IQR), mmol/mol76.0 (58.0 to 95.5)56.0 (42.0 to 67.0)0.001**
HbA1c, median (IQR), %9.10 (7.50 to 10.85)7.30 (6.00 to 8.30)0.001**
TC, mean (SD), mmol/L4.87 (1.10)4.21 (0.69)0.024*
LDL-c, mean (SD), mmol/L3.14 (0.87)2.58 (0.75)0.019*
HDL-c, mean (SD), mmol/L
 Male0.96 (0.19)1.15 (0.35)0.016*
 Female1.02 (0.24)1.45 (0.46)0.001**
Triglycerides, median (IQR), mmol/L1.72 (1.22 to 2.70)1.10 (0.74 to 1.53)0.002**
hs-CRP, median (IQR), mg/L2.14 (1.22 to 4.02)0.41 (0.10 to 2.13)0.002*
CRE, mean (SD), µmol/L60.3 (14.8)68.7 (21.4)0.056
UA, mean (SD), µmol/L
 Male390.8 (92.7)313.7 (53.5)0.033*
 Female353.2 (92.6)266.6 (61.0)0.024*
ACR, median (IQR), mg/g8.36 (3.90 to 20.25)5.00 (3.85 to 6.50)0.078
eGFR, median (IQR), mL/min/1.73 m2126.0 (113.3 to 139.0)134.5 (119.0 to 160.2)0.272
Comorbidities and complications
 Hypertension, n (%)19 (15.2)1 (6.7)0.696
 Dyslipidemia, n (%)69 (55.2)2 (13.3)0.002**
 Diabetic nephropathy, n (%)9 (7.2)1 (6.7)1.000
 Diabetic retinopathy, n (%)11 (8.8)4 (26.7)0.058
 Coronary heart disease, n (%)1 (0.8)1 (6.7)0.203
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)2 (1.6)1 (6.7)0.290
 Obesity, n (%)62 (49.6)1 (6.7)0.002**
Treatment
 OHA, n (%)65 (52.0)10 (66.7)0.258
 Insulin, n (%)40 (32.0)8 (53.3)0.077
  • Data are presented as means (SD) or medians (IQRs); categorical variables are presented as n (%).

  • eGFR (mL/min per 1.73m2) = 175×CRE(mg/dL)-1.234×age (years)-0.179×0.79 (if female).

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.

  • ACR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CRE, serum creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EOD, young early-onset type 2 diabetes; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HNF1A, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MODY, maturity-onset diabetes of the young; OHA, oral hypoglycemic agent; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; UA, uric acid.