Table 2

Mean (SE) blood pressure, blood lipid and glucose concentrations by total dairy intake (n=147 812)

OutcomeAdjusted means (SE)p-trend
0 serving/day0.01–1 serving/day1.01–2 serving/day>2 serving/day
Total dairy intake
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)133.2 (0.74)131.8 (0.73)130.9 (0.74)130.3 (0.74) <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)83.8 (0.57)82.7 (0.56)82.2 (0.57)81.8 (0.57) <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)85.8 (0.37)85.7 (0.36)85.5 (0.36)85.2 (0.37) <0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.8 (0.33)26.6 (0.32)26.6 (0.32)26.3 (0.33) <0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.21 (0.016)1.21 (0.016)1.21 (0.016)1.21 (0.016) 0.133
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.55 (0.04)1.55 (0.03)1.53 (0.03)1.49 (0.04) <0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.33 (0.07)5.34 (0.07)5.30 (0.07)5.26 (0.07) 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.87 (0.05)4.91 (0.05)4.91 (0.05)4.89 (0.05) 0.170
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.03 (0.05)3.08 (0.05)3.08 (0.05)3.06 (0.05) 0.03
Total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio4.22 (0.06)4.25 (0.06)4.26 (0.06)4.24 (0.06) 0.16
Triglyceride to HDL-C ratio1.45 (0.04)1.44 (0.04)1.44 (0.04)1.40 (0.04) 0.02
ApoA1 (µmol/L)1.50 (0.02)1.50 (0.02)1.49 (0.02)1.49 (0.02) 0.06
ApoB (µmol/L)1.00 (0.01)1.02 (0.01)1.02 (0.01)1.00 (0.01) 0.03
ApoA to ApoB ratio0.70 (0.02)0.71 (0.01)0.71 (0.01)0.70 (0.01) 0.59
  • Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure medication, smoking, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, percent energy from carbohydrates, energy and study center as random effect.

  • Mean waist circumferences was adjusted for age (continuous), sex, BMI (continuous), smoking, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Mean body mass index was adjusted for age (continuous), sex, smoking, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Mean HDL-C was adjusted for age (continuous), sex, body mass index (continuous), smoking, cholesterol and statin medication, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Mean triglyceride was adjusted for age (continuous), sex, body mass index (continuous), smoking, statin medication, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Mean fasting blood glucose was adjusted for age (continuous), sex, body mass index (continuous), smoking, diabetes medication, location (urban/rural), education, physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Mean total cholesterol, LDL-C, total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, ApoA, ApoB, ApoA to ApoB ratio were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cholesterol medication, education, location (urban/rural), physical activity, energy intake, quintiles of fruits and vegetables, percent energy from carbohydrates consumption, and study center as random effect.

  • Apo, apolipoprotein; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol.