Table 1

CHARMS criteria to define research question and strategy

Prognostic or diagnostic?The review focused on FINDRISC regardless if it was studied as a diagnostic or prognostic model for T2DM.
ScopeTo inform physicians, researchers and the general population whether they are likely to have T2DM (ie, diagnostic) or will be likely to have T2DM (ie, prognostic). FINDRISC models could be used for research, screening and treatment allocation in primary prevention.
Type of prediction modeling studies
  • Diagnostic/prognostic models with external validation.

  • Diagnostic/prognostic models without external validation.

  • Diagnostic/prognostic model validation.

Target population to whom the prediction model appliesGeneral adult population in LAC.
Outcome to be predictedT2DM.
Time span of predictionPrognostic models will not be included/excluded based on prediction time; that is, it could be short term (eg, next 2.5 years) or long term (eg, next 10 years).
Intended moment of using the modelFINDRISC models to be used in asymptomatic adults of LAC to assess their probability to have T2DM (ie, diagnostic) or their probability to develop T2DM in a predefined period (ie, prognostic).
  • Based on the CHARMS checklist.18

  • CHARMS, CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies; LAC, Latin America and the Caribbean; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.