Table 2

ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of GDM according to quartiles of FPG-VIM

Events (n)UnadjustedModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
GDM total
Q1 (n=41 015)148411111
Q2 (n=41 011)16211.10 (1.02 to 1.18)1.10 (1.03 to 1.19)1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)
Q3 (n=41 012)16561.12 (1.04 to 1.20)1.14 (1.06 to 1.22)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)1.12 (1.04 to 1.20)1.13 (1.05 to 1.27)
Q4 (n=41 015)18661.27 (1.18 to 1.36)1.30 (1.21 to 1.39)1.27 (1.19 to 1.37)1.27 (1.18 to 1.36)1.22 (1.14 to 1.31)
P value<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
P for linear trend<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
GDM without insulin
Q1 (n=40 854)132311111
Q2 (n=40 826)14361.09 (1.01 to 1.18)1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)1.09 (1.01 to 1.18)1.09 (1.01 to 1.18)1.09 (1.01 to 1.18)
Q3 (n=40 815)14591.11 (1.03 to 1.20)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)
Q4 (n=40 739)15901.21 (1.13 to 1.31)1.24 (1.15 to 1.33)1.22 (1.13 to 1.32)1.22 (1.13 to 1.32)1.19 (1.10 to 1.28)
P value<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
P for linear trend<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
GDM with insulin
Q1 (n=39 692)16111111
Q2 (n=39 575)1851.15 (0.93 to 1.43)1.17 (0.94 to 1.44)1.14 (0.92 to 1.41)1.13 (0.91 to 1.39)1.13 (0.92 to 1.40)
Q3 (n=39 553)1971.23 (1.00 to 1.51)1.25 (1.02 to 1.54)1.21 (0.98 to 1.49)1.18 (0.96 to 1.46)1.20 (0.98 to 1.49)
Q4 (n=39 425)2761.73 (1.43 to 2.10)1.78 (1.47 to 2.17)1.70 (1.39 to 2.06)1.66 (1.36 to 2.01)1.48 (1.21 to 1.80)
P value<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
P for linear trend<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • Model 1: adjusted for age.

  • Model 2: adjusted for model 1 plus body mass index.

  • Model 3: adjusted for model 2 plus smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, family history of diabetes.

  • Model 4: adjusted for model 3 plus mean fasting plasma glucose.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; VIM, variability independent of the mean.