Table 2

Test meal (TM) and subsequent standard meal (SSM) incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) of postprandial responses for various substrates and hormones

MeanSDComparisonContrastP valueMeanSDComparisonContrastP value
GlucoseBRHi34481.99192.50Hi vs Lo (overall)142.01<0.0001140.70155.36Hi vs Lo (overall)70.96<0.01
Lo34378.64158.75Di vs Br (overall)245.75<0.000193.83156.48Di vs Br (overall)155.78<0.0001
DIHi34766.40320.61Br: Hi vs Lo103.35<0.05320.57151.72Br: Hi vs Lo46.870.1836
Lo34585.74215.50Di: Hi vs Lo180.66<0.0001225.52108.36Di: Hi vs Lo95.05<0. 01
Hi: Di vs Br284.40<0.0001Hi: Di vs Br179.88<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br207.10<0.0001Lo: Di vs Br131.69<0.001
InsulinBRHi345643.623093.41Hi vs Lo (overall)2729.25<0.00012447.711651.66Hi vs Lo (overall)−232.460.4477
Lo343269.082073.61Di vs Br (overall)865.96<0.053454.722338.81Di vs Br (overall)2462.41<0.0001
DIHi346864.293714.81Br: Hi vs Lo2374.54<0.00015684.673420.26Br: Hi vs Lo*−1007.01<0.05
Lo343692.372039.35Di: Hi vs Lo3083.97<0.00015141.352288.56Di: Hi vs Lo*542.090.2398
Hi: Di vs Br1220.67<0.05Hi: Di vs Br*3236.96<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br511.240.3481Lo: Di vs Br*1687.85<0.001
TriglyceridesBRHi343.987.93Hi vs Lo (overall)0.770.777253.6227.28Hi vs Lo (overall)7.21<0.05
Lo342.583.60Di vs Br (overall)9.66<0.00142.9321.43Di vs Br (overall)−13.42<0.001
DIHi3413.0218.47Br: Hi vs Lo1.400.746536.7236.57Br: Hi vs Lo10.69<0.05
Lo3412.8718.88Di: Hi vs Lo0.150.964532.9930.08Di: Hi vs Lo3.730.4473
Hi: Di vs Br9.04<0.05Hi: Di vs Br−16.90<0.01
Lo: Di vs Br10.29<0.01Lo: Di vs Br−9.94<0.05
Free fatty acidsBRHi29−59504.8926 273.50Hi vs Lo (overall)−3703.860.3504496.987870.64Hi vs Lo (overall)−3967.370.1552
Lo30−50405.0918 057.99Di vs Br (overall)8766.81<0.05−3446.397360.76Di vs Br (overall)−56096.50<0.0001
DIHi29−45272.7322 182.40Br: Hi vs Lo−8909.320.1022−63524.9924 943.72Br: Hi vs Lo*4231.630.2678
Lo29−46774.3226 604.49Di: Hi vs Lo1501.590.7772−51358.6117 701.28Di: Hi vs Lo*−12166.38<0.01
Hi: Di vs Br13 972.27<0.05Hi: Di vs Br*−64295.50<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br3561.360.5193Lo: Di vs Br*−47897.49<0.0001

BRHi34−637.76354.44Hi vs Lo (overall)−118.790.1233647.97374.81Hi vs Lo (overall)111.58<0.05
Lo34−564.90333.75Di vs Br (overall)−126.520.1022317.80293.40Di vs Br (overall)−435.34<0.0001
DIHi34−820.98502.17Br: Hi vs Lo−93.000.3889−48.14395.24Br: Hi vs Lo*347.53<0.0001
Lo34−671.83589.98Di: Hi vs Lo−144.580.187877.36447.54Di: Hi vs Lo*−124.360.1195
Hi: Di vs Br−152.310.1653Hi: Di vs Br*−671.28<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br−100.730.3619Lo: Di vs Br*−199.39<0.05
  • Linear mixed models were used to compare the iAUCs following TM according to the GI and MT in a 2×2 analyses. Significance was set at p<0.05.

  • ‘Hi vs Lo overall’—when dinner and breakfast combined. ‘Di vs Br overall’—when high and low GI combined.

  • Bold values are statistically significant.

  • *Adjustments for multiplicity was done using the False Discovery Rate method.

  • †Only when GI:MT interaction significant, subgroup analyses are shown in italics.

  • BR, breakfast; DI, dinner; GI, glycemic index; Hi, high GI; Lo, low GI; MT, meal time; N, number.