Table 3

Combined total areas under the curves (tAUCs) of test meals (TM) and subsequent standard meal (SSM) postprandial responses for various substrates and hormones

VariableMeal timeGINMeanSDComparisonContrastP value†
GlucoseBRHi342493.32334.44Hi vs Lo (overall)181.11<0.0001
Lo342423.70328.43Di vs Br (overall)296.81<0.0001
DIHi342901.62442.64Br: Hi vs Lo*69.630.1906
Lo342609.02306.35Di: Hi vs Lo*292.60<0.0001
Hi: Di vs Br*408.29<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br*185.32<0.001
InsulinBRHi3411 425.736261.91Hi vs Lo (overall)2686.65<0.0001
Lo349516.744963.53Di vs Br (overall)1572.55<0.01
DIHi3413 775.946962.72Br: Hi vs Lo1908.99<0.01
Lo3410 126.834127.53Di: Hi vs Lo3464.31<0.0001
Hi: Di vs Br2350.21<0.01
Lo: Di vs Br794.890.3125
TriglyceridesBRHi34421.39156.72Hi vs Lo (overall)−3.300.9097
Lo34395.60155.64Di vs Br (overall)158.25<0.0001
DIHi34550.54278.76Br: Hi vs Lo25.790.5690
Lo34582.93404.90Di: Hi vs Lo−32.390.4981
Hi: Di vs Br129.16<0.01
Lo: Di vs Br187.33<0.0001
Free fatty acidsBRHi2944 669.5314 708.28Hi vs Lo (overall)−2131.990.4862
Lo3050 423.8117 067.00Di vs Br (overall)36 217.11<0.0001
DIHi2984 738.5117 216.24Br: Hi vs Lo−5761.220.1680
Lo2983 241.2718 907.22Di: Hi vs Lo1497.240.7035
Hi: Di vs Br39 846.33<0.0001
Lo: Di vs Br32 587.88<0.0001
GlucagonBRHi341601.86560.85Hi vs Lo (overall)−81.570.1906
Lo341563.72570.10Di vs Br (overall)207.56<0.001
DIHi341638.99659.15Br: Hi vs Lo*55.670.5241
Lo341885.22766.10Di: Hi vs Lo*−218.82<0.001
Hi: Di vs Br*70.310.4604
Lo: Di vs Br*344.80<0.0001
  • Linear mixed models were used to compare the combined tAUCs following TM+SSM according to the GI and MT in a 2×2 analyses. Significance was set at p<0.05.

  • ‘Hi vs Lo overall’—when dinner and breakfast combined. ‘Di vs Br overall’—when high and low GI combined.

  • Bold values are statistically significant.

  • *Only when GI:MT interaction significant, subgroup analyses are shown in italics.

  • †Adjustments for multiplicity was done using the False Discovery Rate method.

  • BR, breakfast; DI, dinner; GI, glycemic index; Hi, high GI; Lo, low GI; MT, meal time; N, number.