Table 3

Continuous parameters including age, duration of diabetes, weight, height, BMI, blood sugar level, and ABI along with the parameters indicating neuropathy for all participants and for the groups with and with no future ulceration occurrence

Continuous parameterAllNo-ulcer occurrenceWith ulcer occurrenceSurvival analysis Cox univariate regressionMann-Whitney U testUnivariate logistic regression
MedianRangen‡MedianRangen‡MedianRangen‡HR
(95% CI)*
P- survival analysis *P- differences†OR (95% CI)‡P-value logistic regression‡
Age (years)529018105290168754601231.026 (1.010 to 1.042)0.0010.0111.019 (1.003 to 1.035)0.019
Height (m)1.60.818091.60.716861.60.61230.928 (0.125 to 6.858)0.9410.9231.175 (0.157 to 8.775)0.875
Weight (kg)73.2120180773.2120168473.0771230.992 (0.981 to 1.003)0.1570.6640.997 (0.985 to 1.008)0.582
BMI (kg/m2)29.158.6181029.158.6168728.934.61230.984 (0.955 to 1.014)0.2930.7600.995(0.966 to 1.024)0.722
Ankle brachial index1.11.818101.11.816871.11.21230.499 (0.142 to 1.750)0.5310.2050.247 (0.073 to 0.834)0.023
Vibration perception threshold average (V)204818102048168730411231.079 (1.060 to 1.099)0.0000.0001.073 (1.054 to 1.092)0.000
Duration of diabetes (days)109518 9801810109518 9801687255510 9491231.000 (1.000 to 1.000)0.0000.0001.000 (1.000 to 1.000)0.000
TST to cold probe average (°C)28.634.0172528.734.0161426.75.61110.755 (0.688 to 0.829)0.0000.0000.654 (0.565 to 0.757)0.000
TST to hot probe average (°C)37.2166.7172737.1166.7161539.59.81121.019 (1.004 to 1.035)0.0030.0001.031 (0.996 to 1.067)0.033
TTT to cold probe average (°C)20.789.7172420.789.7161218.58.41120.668 (0.592 to 0.754)0.0000.0000.717 (0.640 to 0.803)0.000
TTT to hot probe average (°C)44.915.5172244.815.5161246.16.61121.523 (1.337 to 1.734)0.0000.0001.517 (1.342 to 1.714)0.000
Vibration perception threshold wrist (V)114617511146163513171161.068 (1.036 to 1.101)0.0000.0001.117 (1.060 to 1.177)0.000
Vibration perception threshold knee (V)224317492243163330391161.082 (1.059 to 1.107)0.0000.0001.081 (1.057 to 1.106)0.000
Vibration perception threshold ankle (V)214317512043163531391161.084 (1.063 to 1.105)0.0000.0001.077 (1.056 to 1.098)0.000
Vibration perception threshold hallux (V)214417512144163532401161.077 (1.057 to 1.098)0.0000.0001.072 (1.053 to 1.092)0.000
Blood glucose level (mmol/L)143118091431168616281231.027 (1.006 to 1.048)0.0000.0261.024 (1.003 to 1.045)0.031
  • P values <0.05 indicate a significant association and are shown in bold in the table.

  • *Based on univariate Cox survival analysis.

  • †Mann-Whitney U test.

  • ‡Based on univariate logistic regression.

  • ABI, ankle brachial index; BMI, body mass index; TST, temperature sensation threshold; TTT, temperature tolerance threshold.